Growth rate of population associated with high terrorism incidents in society
Abstract. What is the growth rate of population that maximizes fatalities from the terrorist incidents? This is a fundamental problem in studies of terrorism and political violence. The paper confronts this question here by analyzing demographic and socioeconomic factors causing and sustaining terrorism in society. Firstly, the present study suggests non-linear effects between confirmed fatalities for terrorist incident and rates of growth of population. Secondly, empirical analyzes and optimization reveal that a growth rate of population of about 3.6% maximizes the lethality due to terrorist incidents in society. This high growth rate of population associated with terrorism is in some problematic regions such as Iraq, Mali, Sudan, etc. Overall, then, the ethnicity and/or religion are illusory causes of terrorism, because they are not an environmental stressor per se. Instead, a distal cause of terrorism may be a critical demographic mass and high population growth that, in combination with socioeconomic issues and political instability, can induce terrorism as a result. Finally, some socioeconomic policies are suggested to enhance conditions of people to reduce this social issue over the long run.
Keywords. Terrorism, Population, Demographic factors, Neo-Malthusian approaches, Population growth, Income inequality, Human development index, Political stability.JEL. I24, I30, J10, N30, R23, Q56, Z10.
Abadie, A. (2005). Poverty, political freedom, and the roots of terrorism, The American Economic Review, 95(4), 50-56. doi. 10.1257/000282806777211847
Abernethy, V. (1993). Poverty, difference, and conflict. Population and Environment, 14(5), 417-419.
Ackoff, R.L., & Rovin, S. 2003. Redesigning Society, Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA.
Agnew, R. (1985). A revised theory of delinquency, Social Forces, 64(1), 151-167. doi. 10.1093/sf/64.1.151
Alesina, A., Devleeschauwer, A., Easterly, W., Kurlat, S., & Wacziarg, R. (2003). Fractionalization. Journal of Economic Growth, 8(2), 155–194. doi. 10.1023/A:1024471506938
Altman, I. (1975). The Environment and Social Behavior. Brooks/Cole, Monterey, CA.
Ball, P. (2005). Is terrorism the next format for war? Nature, doi. 10.1038/news050711-5
Baum, A., Calesnick, L., Davis, G., & Gatchel, R. (1982). Individual differences in coping with crowding: Stimulus screening and social overload. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43(4), 821-830. doi. 10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.521
Baum, A., & Koman, S. (1976). Differential response to anticipated crowding: Psychological effects of social and spatial density. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34(3), 526–536. doi. 10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2066
Baum, A., & Paulus, P.B. (1991). Crowding. In D. Stokols, & I. Altman (Eds.), Handbook of Environmental Psychology, Vol. 1, (pp. 533–570). Wiley, NY.
Bellitto, M., & Coccia, M. (2018). Interrelationships between Violent crime, demographic and socioeconomic factors: A preliminary analysis between Central-Northern European countries and Mediterranean countries, Journal of Economic and Social Thought, 5(3), 230-246.
Benati I., Coccia M. 2017. General trends and causes of high compensation of government managers in the OECD countries, International Journal of Public Administration, 41(12), 1018-1031. doi. 10.1080/01900692.2017.1318399
Blomberg, S.B., Hess, G.D., & Weerapana, A. (2004). Economic conditions and terrorism. European Journal of Political Economy, 20(2), 463-478. doi. 10.1016/j.ejpoleco.2004.02.002
Blomberg, S.B., Hess, G.D., & Weerapana, A. (2004b). An economic model of terrorism. Conflict Management and Peace Science, 21(1), 17-28. doi. 10.1080/07388940490433882
Burgoon, B. (2006). On welfare and terror: Social welfare policies and political-economic roots of terrorism. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 50(2), 176-203. doi. 10.1177/0022002705284829
Butler, D. (2015). Terrorism: why European turn to jihad, Nature, 528, 20-21.
Cahill, M.E., & Mulligan, G.F. (2003). The determinants of crime in Tucson, Arizona. Urban Geography, 24(7), 582–610. doi. 10.2747/0272-36220.127.116.112
Calabrese, G., Coccia, M., & Rolfo, S. (2005). Strategy and market management of new product development: evidence from Italian SMEs, International Journal of Product Development, 2(1-2), 170-189. doi. 10.1504/IJPD.2005.006675
Calcatelli, A., Coccia, M., Ferraris, K., & Tagliafico, I. (2003). Donne-scienza-tecnologia: analisi di un caso di studio. Working Paper Ceris del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, 5(7), 1591-0709.
Calhoun, J. (1962). Population density and social pathology. Scientific American, 206(2), 139-148.
Cavallo, E., Ferrari, E., Bollani, L., & Coccia, M. (2014). Attitudes and behaviour of adopters of technological innovations in agricultural tractors: A case study in Italian agricultural system, Agricultural Systems, 130, 44-54. doi. 10.1016/j.agsy.2014.05.012
Cavallo, E., Ferrari, E., Bollani, L., & Coccia, M. (2014a). Strategic management implications for the adoption of technological innovations in agricultural tractor: the role of scale factors and environmental attitude, Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 26(7), 765-779. doi. 10.1080/09537325.2014.890706
Cavallo, E., Ferrari, E., & Coccia, M. (2015). Likely technological trajectories in agricultural tractors by analysing innovative attitudes of farmers, International Journal of Technology, Policy and Management, 15(2), 158–177. doi. 10.1504/IJTPM.2015.069203
Chagpar, A., & Coccia, M. (2012). Breast cancer and socio-economic factors. Working Paper of Public Health, n.7, Azienda Ospedaliera SS. Antonio e Biagio Arrigo, Alessandria, Italy.
Choma, B.L., Haji, R., Hodson, G., & Hoffarth, M. (2016). Avoiding cultural contamination: Intergroup disgust sensitivity and religious identification as predictors of interfaith threat, faith-based policies, and islamophobia, Personality and Individual Differences, 95, 50-55. doi. 10.1016/j.paid.2016.02.013
Christens, B., Speer, P.W. (2005). Predicting violent crime using urban and suburban densities. Behavior and Social Issues, 14(2), 113-127. doi. 10.5210/bsi.v14i2.334
Christian, J. (1961). Phenomena associated with population density. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 47(4), 428-449. doi. 10.1177/030913257900300102
Coccia, M. (2001). Satisfaction, work involvement and R&D performance. International Journal of Human Resources Development and Management, 1(2-3-4), 268-282. doi. 10.1504/IJHRDM.2001.001010
Coccia, M. (2003). Metrics of R&D performance and management of public research institute. Proceedings of IEEE- IEMC 03, Piscataway, pp.231-236.
Coccia, M. (2004). Spatial metrics of the technological transfer: analysis and strategic management. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 16(1), 31-52. doi. 10.1080/0953732032000175490
Coccia, M. (2005). Countrymetrics: valutazione della performance economica e tecnologica dei paesi e posizionamento dell’Italia, Rivista Internazionale di Scienze Sociali, CXIII(3), 377-412.
Coccia, M. (2005a). Metrics to measure the technology transfer absorption: analysis of the relationship between institutes and adopters in northern Italy. International Journal of Technology Transfer and Commercialization, 4(4), 462-486. doi. 10.1504/IJTTC.2005.006699
Coccia, M. (2005b). Technometrics: Origins, historical evolution and new direction, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 72(8), 944-979. doi. 10.1016/j.techfore.2005.05.011
Coccia, M. (2005c). Economics of scientific research: origins, nature and structure, Proceedings of Economic Society of Australia.
Coccia, M. (2006). Classifications of innovations: survey and future directions. Working Paper Ceris del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, 8(2), 1-19. [Retrieved from].
Coccia, M. (2006a). Analysis and classification of public research institutes. World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, 3(1), 1-16.
Coccia, M. (2007). A new taxonomy of country performance and risk based on economic and technological indicators, Journal of Applied Economics, 10(1), 29-42.
Coccia, M. (2008). Science, funding and economic growth: analysis and science policy implications. World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, 5(1), 1-27. doi. 10.1504/WRSTSD.2008.01781
Coccia, M. (2008a). Spatial mobility of knowledge transfer and absorptive capacity: analysis and measurement of the impact within the geoeconomic space. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 33(1), 105-122. doi. 10.1007/s10961-007-9032-4
Coccia, M. (2008b). New organizational behaviour of public research institutions: Lessons learned from Italian case study. International Journal of Business Innovation and Research, 2(4), 402–419. doi. 10.1504/IJBIR.2008.018589
Coccia, M. (2009). A new approach for measuring and analyzing patterns of regional economic growth: empirical analysis in Italy. Italian Journal of Regional Science- Scienze Regionali, 8(2), 71-95. doi. 10.3280/SCRE2009-002004
Coccia, M. (2009a). Measuring the impact of sustainable technological innovation, International Journal of Technology Intelligence and Planning, 5(3), 276-288. doi. 10.1504/IJTIP.2009.026749
Coccia, M. (2010). Public and private R&D investments as complementary inputs for productivity growth. International Journal of Technology, Policy and Management, 10(1/2), 73-91. doi. 10.1504/IJTPM.2010.032855
Coccia, M. (2010a). Foresight of technological determinants and primary energy resources of future economic long waves, International Journal of Foresight and Innovation Policy, 6(4), 225–232. doi. 10.1504/IJFIP.2010.037468
Coccia, M. (2010b). Energy metrics for driving competitiveness of countries: Energy weakness magnitude, GDP per barrel and barrels per capita. Energy Policy, 38(3), 1330-1339. doi. 10.1016/j.enpol.2009.11.011
Coccia, M. (2010c). Spatial patterns of technology transfer and measurement of its friction in the geo-economic space. International Journal of Technology Transfer and Commercialisation, 9(3), 255-267. doi. 10.1504/IJTTC.2010.030214
Coccia, M. (2010d). The asymmetric path of economic long waves, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 77(5), 730-738. doi. 10.1016/j.techfore.2010.02.003
Coccia, M. (2010e). Democratization is the driving force for technological and economic change, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 77(2), 248-264. doi. 10.1016/j.techfore.2009.06.007
Coccia, M. (2011). The interaction between public and private R&D expenditure and national productivity. Prometheus-Critical Studies in Innovation, 29(2), 121-130. doi. 10.1080/08109028.2011.601079
Coccia, M. (2012). Political economy of R&D to support the modern competitiveness of nations and determinants of economic optimization and inertia, Technovation, 32(6), 370–379. doi. 10.1016/j.technovation.2012.03.005
Coccia, M. (2012a). Evolutionary trajectories of the nanotechnology research across worldwide economic players. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 24(10), 1029-1050. doi. 10.1080/09537325.2012.705117
Coccia, M. (2012b). Evolutionary growth of knowledge in path-breaking targeted therapies for lung cancer: radical innovations and structure of the new technological paradigm. International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research, 3(3-4), 273-290. doi. 10.1504/IJBHR.2012.051406
Coccia, M. (2012c). Converging genetics, genomics and nanotechnologies for groundbreaking pathways in biomedicine and nanomedicine. International Journal of Healthcare Technology and Management, 13(4), 184-197. doi. 10.1504/IJHTM.2012.050616
Coccia, M. (2012d). Driving forces of technological change in medicine: Radical innovations induced by side effects and their impact on society and healthcare. Technology in Society, 34(4), 271-283. doi. 10.1016/j.techsoc.2012.06.002
Coccia, M. (2013). What are the likely interactions among innovation, government debt, and employment? Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research, 26(4), 456–471. doi. 10.1080/13511610.2013.863704
Coccia, M. (2013a). The effect of country wealth on incidence of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 141(2), 225-229. doi. 10.1007/s10549-013-2683-y
Coccia, M. (2014). Path-breaking target therapies for lung cancer and a far-sighted health policy to support clinical and cost effectiveness. Health Policy and Technology, 1(3), 74-82. doi. 10.1016/j.hlpt.2013.09.007
Coccia, M. (2014a). Emerging technological trajectories of tissue engineering and the critical directions in cartilage regenerative medicine. Int. J. Healthcare Technology and Management, 14(3), 194-208. doi. 10.1504/IJHTM.2014.064247
Coccia, M. (2014b). Converging scientific fields and new technological paradigms as main drivers of the division of scientific labour in drug discovery process: the effects on strategic management of the R&D corporate change. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 26(7), 733-749, doi. 10.1080/09537325.2014.882501
Coccia, M. (2014c). Driving forces of technological change: The relation between population growth and technological innovation-Analysis of the optimal interaction across countries, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 82(2), 52-65. doi. 10.1016/j.techfore.2013.06.001
Coccia, M. (2014). Socio-cultural origins of the patterns of technological innovation: What is the likely interaction among religious culture, religious plurality and innovation? Towards a theory of socio-cultural drivers of the patterns of technological innovation, Technology in Society, 36(1), 13-25. doi. 10.23760/2421-7158.2017.004
Coccia, M. (2014e). Religious culture, democratisation and patterns of technological innovation. International Journal of Sustainable Society, 6(4), 397-418. doi. 10.1504/IJSSOC.2014.066771
Coccia, M. (2014f). Structure and organisational behaviour of public research institutions under unstable growth of human resources, Int. J. Services Technology and Management, 20(4/5/6), 251–266. doi. 10.1504/IJSTM.2014.068857
Coccia, M. (2014g). Steel market and global trends of leading geo-economic players. International Journal of Trade and Global Markets, 7(1), 36-52, doi. 10.1504/IJTGM.2014.058714
Coccia, M. (2015). The Nexus between technological performances of countries and incidence of cancers in society. Technology in Society, 42, 61-70. doi. 10.1016/j.techsoc.2015.02.003
Coccia, M. (2015a). Patterns of innovative outputs across climate zones: the geography of innovation, Prometheus. Critical Studies in Innovation, 33(2), 165-186. doi. 10.1080/08109028.2015.1095979
Coccia, M. (2015b). General sources of general purpose technologies in complex societies: Theory of global leadership-driven innovation, warfare and human development, Technology in Society, 42, 199-226. doi. 10.1016/j.techsoc.2015.05.008
Coccia, M. (2015c). Spatial relation between geo-climate zones and technological outputs to explain the evolution of technology. Int. J. Transitions and Innovation Systems, 4(1-2), 5-21. doi. 10.1504/IJTIS.2015.074642
Coccia, M. (2015d). Technological paradigms and trajectories as determinants of the R&D corporate change in drug discovery industry. International Journal Knowledge and Learning, 10(1), 29-43. doi. 10.1504/IJKL.2015.071052
Coccia, M. (2016). Asymmetric paths of public debts and of general government deficits across countries within and outside the European monetary unification and economic policy of debt dissolution. The Journal of Economic Asymmetries, 15, 17-31. doi. 10.1016/j.jeca.2016.10.003
Coccia, M. (2016a). Radical innovations as drivers of breakthroughs: characteristics and properties of the management of technology leading to superior organizational performance in the discovery process of R&D labs. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 28(4), 381-395. doi. 10.1080/09537325.2015.1095287
Coccia, M. (2016). Problem-driven innovations in drug discovery: co-evolution of radical innovation with the evolution of problems, Health Policy and Technology, 5(2), 143-155. doi. 10.1016/j.hlpt.2016.02.003
Coccia, M. (2016c). The relation between price setting in markets and asymmetries of systems of measurement of goods. The Journal of Economic Asymmetries, 14(B), 168-178. doi. 10.1016/j.jeca.2016.06.001
Coccia, M. (2017). The source and nature of general purpose technologies for supporting next K-waves: Global leadership and the case study of the U.S. Navy's Mobile User Objective System, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 116, 331-339. doi. 10.1016/j.techfore.2016.05.019
Coccia, M. (2017a). Optimization in R&D intensity and tax on corporate proﬁts for supporting labor productivity of nations. The Journal of Technology Transfer, doi. 10.1007/s10961-017-9572-1
Coccia, M. (2017b). Varieties of capitalism’s theory of innovation and a conceptual integration with leadership-oriented executives: the relation between typologies of executive, technological and socioeconomic performances. Int. J. Public Sector Performance Management, 3(2), 148–168. doi. 10.1504/IJPSPM.2017.084672
Coccia, M. (2017c). Sources of disruptive technologies for industrial change. L’industria –rivista di Economia e Politicaindustriale, 38(1), 97-120.
Coccia, M. (2017d). Sources of technological innovation: Radical and incremental innovation problem-driven to support competitive advantage of firms. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 29(9), 1048-1061. doi. 10.1080/09537325.2016.1268682
Coccia, M. (2017e). A Theory of general causes of violent crime: Homicides, income inequality and deficiencies of the heat hypothesis and of the model of CLASH, Aggression and Violent Behavior, 37, 190-200. doi. 10.1016/j.avb.2017.10.005
Coccia, M. (2017f). New directions in measurement of economic growth, development and under development, Journal of Economics and Political Economy, 4(4), 382-395.
Coccia, M. (2017g). Disruptive firms and industrial change, Journal of Economic and Social Thought, 4(4), 437-450.
Coccia, M. (2017h). The Fishbone diagram to identify, systematize and analyze the sources of general purpose Technologies, Journal of Social and Administrative Sciences, 4(4), 291-303.
Coccia, M. (2018). A theory of the general causes of long waves: War, general purpose technologies, and economic change. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 128, 287-295 10.1016/j.techfore.2017.11.013
Coccia, M. (2018a). The relation between terrorism and high population growth, Journal of Economics and Political Economy, 5(1), 84-104.
Coccia, M. (2018c). Violent crime driven by income Inequality between countries, Turkish Economic Review, 5(1), 33-55.
Coccia, M. (2018d). The origins of the economics of innovation, Journal of Economic and Social Thought, 5(1), 9-28.
Coccia, M. (2018e). Theorem of not independence of any technological innovation, Journal of Economics Bibliography, 5(1), 29-35.
Coccia, M. (2018e). Theorem of not independence of any technological innovation, Journal of Social and Administrative Sciences, 5(1), 15-33.
Coccia, M. (2018f). Classification of innovation considering technological interaction, Journal of Economics Bibliography, 5(2), 76-93.
Coccia, M. (2018g). An introduction to the methods od inquiry in social sciences, Journal of Social and Administrative Sciences, 5(2), 116-126.
Coccia, M. (2018h). Motivations of scientific research in society, Journal of Social and Administrative Sciences, 5(3), 196-216.
Coccia, M. (2018i). Measurement and assessment of the evolution of technology with a simple biological model, Turkish Economic Review, 5(3), 263-284.
Coccia, M. (2018j). Functionality development of product innovation: An empirical analysis of the technological trajectories of smartphone, Journal of Economics Library, 5(3), 241-258.
Coccia, M., & Bellitto, M. (2018). Human progress and its socioeconomic effects in society, Journal of Economic and Social Thought, 5(2), 160-178.
Coccia, M., & Igor, M. (2018). Rewards in public administration: a proposed classification, Journal of Social and Administrative Sciences, 5(2), 68-80.
Coccia, M., & Bozeman, B. (2016). Allometric models to measure and analyze the evolution of international research collaboration. Scientometrics, 108(3), 1065-1084. doi. 10.1007/s11192-016-2027-x
Coccia, M., & Cadario, E. (2014). Organisational (un)learning of public research labs in turbulent context, International Journal of Innovation and Learning, 15(2), 115-129. doi. 10.1504/IJIL.2014.059756
Coccia, M., Falavigna, G., & Manello, A. 2015. The impact of hybrid public and market-oriented financing mechanisms on scientific portfolio and performances of public research labs: a scientometric analysis. Scientometrics, 102(1), 151-168. doi. 10.1007/s11192-014-1427-z
Coccia, M., & Finardi, U. (2012). Emerging nanotechnological research for future pathway of biomedicine. International Journal of Biomedical Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 2 (3-4), 299-317. doi. 10.1504/IJBNN.2012.051223
Coccia, M., & Finardi, U. (2013). New technological trajectories of non-thermal plasma technology in medicine. International Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, 11(4), 337-356. doi. 10.1504/IJBET.2013.055665
Coccia, M., Finardi, U., & Margon, D. (2012). Current trends in nanotechnology research across worldwide geo-economic players, The Journal of Technology Transfer, 37(5), 777-787. doi. 10.1007/s10961-011-9219-6
Coccia, M., & Rolfo, S. (2000). Ricerca pubblica e trasferimento tecnologico: il caso della regione Piemonte. In S. Rolfo (ed), Innovazione e piccole imprese in Piemonte, Franco Angeli Editore, Milano.
Coccia, M., & Rolfo, S. (2002). Technology transfer analysis in the Italian national research council, Technovation - The International Journal of Technological Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 22(5), 291-299. doi. 10.1016/S0166-4972(01)00018-9
Coccia, M., & Rolfo, S. (2007). How research policy changes can affect the organization and productivity of public research institutes, Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis, Research and Practice, 9(3) 215-233. doi. 10.1080/13876980701494624
Coccia, M., & Rolfo, S. (2010). New entrepreneurial behaviour of public research organizations: opportunities and threats of technological services supply, International Journal of Services Technology and Management, 13(1-2), 134-151. doi. 10.1504/IJSTM.2010.029674
Coccia, M., & Rolfo, S. (2013). Human resource management and organizational behavior of public research institutions, International Journal of Public Administration, 36(4), 256-268. doi. 10.1080/01900692.2012.756889
Coccia, M., & Rolfo, S. (2009). Project management in public research organization: Strategic change in complex scenarios. International Journal of Project Organisation and Management, 1(3), 235–252. doi. 10.1504/IJPOM.2009.027537
Coccia, M., & Wang, L. (2015). Path-breaking directions of nanotechnology-based chemotherapy and molecular cancer therapy, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 94, 155–169. doi. 10.1016/j.techfore.2014.09.007
Coccia, M., & Wang, L. (2016). Evolution and convergence of the patterns of international scientific collaboration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 113(8), 2057-2061. doi. 10.1073/pnas.1510820113
Coggins B. L. 2015. Does State Failure Cause Terrorism? An Empirical Analysis (1999–2008). Journal of Conflict Resolution, vol. 59, n. 3, pp. 455-483.
Crenshaw, M. (1981). The Causes of Terrorism. Comparative Politics, 13(4), 379-399.
Curtis, L.A. (1975). Violence, Race, and Culture. Health, Lexington, MA.
Desor, J.A. (1972). Toward a psychological theory of crowding. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 21(1), 79–83. doi. 10.1037/h0032112
Devezas, T., & Santos, U. (2006). The Emergence of Modern terrorism. In T.C. Devezas (ed.), Kondratieff Waves, Warfare and World Security, (pp.245-249), IOS Press, Amsterdam.
Editorials Nature, (2015). Root causes-Research has a part to play in identifying the factors that breed terrorism, Nature, 528(7580), 7-8. doi. 10.1038/528007b
Ehrlich, P.R., & Liu, J. (2002). Some roots of terrorism. Population and Environment, 24(2), 183-192. doi. 10.1023/A:1020700221602
Ehrlich, P.R. (1968). The Population Bomb. New York, NY: Ballantine Books.
Enders, W., & Hoover, G.A. (2012). The nonlinear relationship between terrorism and poverty. American Economic Review: Papers and Proceedings, 102(3), 267-272. doi. 10.1257/aer.102.3.267
Enders, W., Hoover, G.A., & Sandler T. (2016). The changing nonlinear relationship between income and terrorism, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 60(2), 195-225. doi. 10.1177/0022002714535252
Ezcurra, R., & Palacios, D. (2016). Terrorism and spatial disparities: Does interregional inequality matter? European Journal of Political Economy, 42, 60-74. doi. 10.1016/j.ejpoleco.2016.01.004
Ferrari E., Bollani L., Coccia M., & Cavallo E. (2013). Technological Innovations in Agricultural Tractors: Adopters’ Behaviour Towards New Technological Trajectories and Future Directions, Working Paper Ceris del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, No.15/5.
Frey, B.S., & Luechinger, S. (2003). How to fight terrorism: Alternatives to deterrence. Defence and Peace Economics, 14(4), 237-249. doi. 10.1080/1024269032000052923
Kaplan, R.D. (2000). The Coming Anarchy: Shattering the Dreams of the Post Cold War. New York, NY: Random House.
Keyfitz, N. (1993). Population and sustainable development: Distinguishing fact and preference concerning the future human population and environment, Population and Environment, 14(5), 441-461. doi. 10.1146/annurev.energy.32.041306.100243
Krieger, T., & Meierrieks, D. (2010). Terrorism in the Worlds of welfare capitalism. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 54(6), 902-939. doi. 10.1177/0022002710367885
Krieger, T., & Meierrieks, D. (2011). What causes terrorism?, Public Choice, 147(1-2), 3-27.
Krueger, A.B., & Malečková, J. (2009). Attitudes and action: Public opinion and the occurrence of international terrorism. Science, 325(5947), 1534-1536. doi. 10.1126/science.1170867
LaFree, G., & Dugan, L. (2004). How does studying terrorism compare to studying crime? In M. Deflem (Ed.), Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism: Criminological Perspectives, (pp.53−74). New York: Elsevier.
LaFree, G., & Dugan, L. (2009). Research on terrorism and countering terrorism. In M. Tonry (ed.), Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, (pp.413-177). University of Chicago Press: Chicago.
Laird, J.T. (1973). Mental health and population density. Journal of Psychology, 85(2), 171–177. doi. 10.1080/00223980.1973.9915647
Lee, B.X. (2016). Causes and cures VII: Structural violence. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 28(3), 109–114. doi. 10.1016/j.avb.2016.05.003
Lee, B.X. (2016). Causes and cures VIII: Environmental violence. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 30, 105-109. doi. 10.1016/j.avb.2016.07.004
Lemsine, A. (1992). God guard Islam from the Islamists, The Washington Report on Middle Eastern Affairs, pp. 14-16.
Lepore, S.J., Evans, G.W., & Palsane, M.N. (1991). Social hassles and psychological health in the context of chronic crowding. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 32(4), 357-367. doi. 10.2307/2137103
Li, Q., & Schaub, D. (2004). Economic globalization and transnational terrorism: A pooled time-series analysis. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 48(2), 230-258. doi. 10.1177/0022002703262869
Linstone, H.A. (2003). The 21st century: Everyman as faust - technology, terrorism, and the multiple perspective approach. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 70(3), 283-296. doi. 10.1016/S0040-1625(02)00395-5
Linstone, H.A. (2007). Warfare and World Security, Kondratieff Waves, T. C. Devezas (Ed.), 2006, IOS Press, Amsterdam. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 74(1), 113-116. doi. 10.1016/j.techfore.2006.08.009
Mackintosh, E., West S., & Saegert, S. (1975). Two studies of crowding in urban public spaces. Environment and Behavior, 7, 159-184. doi. 10.1177/001391657500700203
Malthus, T.R. (1817). An Essay on the Principle of Population; or, A View of its Past and Present Effects on Human Happiness; with an Inquiry into Our Prospects Respecting the Future Removal or Mitigation of the Evils which it Occasions. London, U.K.: J. Murray.
Newman, E. (2006). Exploring the root causes of terrorism. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 29(8), 749-772. doi. 10.1080/10576100600704069
Norris, P. (2015). Democracy cross-national data, Release 4.0 Fall 2015 (New), John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge MA. Accessed May 2016, [Retrieved from].
Norris, P., Kern, M., & Just, M. (2013). Framing Terrorism: The News Media, the Government and the Public, Routledge.
Park, J., & Bali, V. (2015). International terrorism and the political survival of leaders. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 61(7), 1343-1370. doi. 10.1177/0022002715613139
Parsons, J. (1991). Population control and politics, Population and Environment, 12(4), 355-377. doi. 10.1007/BF01566305
Peluso, N.L., & Watts, M. (2001). Violent Environments. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Piazza, J.A. (2006). Rooted in poverty? Terrorism, poor economic development, and social cleavages. Terrorism and Political Violence, 18(1), 159-177. doi. 10.1080/095465590944578
Rapoport, D.C. (2004). Modern terror: The four waves. In A.K. Cronin & J.M. Ludes (eds.), Attacking Terrorism: Elements of a Grand Strategy, (pp.46-73). Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
Regoeczi, W.C. (2003). When context matters: A multilevel analysis of household and neighborhood crowding on aggression and withdrawal. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 23(4), 451-464. doi. 10.1016/S0272-4944(02)00106-8
Rice, S.K. (2009). Emotions and terrorism research: A case for a social-psychological agenda. Journal of Criminal Justice, 37(3), 248-255. doi. 10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2009.04.012
Rosendorff, B.P., & Sandler, T. (2005). The political economy of transnational terrorism. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 49(2), 171-182. doi. 10.1177/0022002704272834
Schaafsma, J., & Williams, K.D. (2012). Exclusion, intergroup hostility, and religious fundamentalism. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(4), 829-837. doi. 10.1016/j.jesp.2012.02.015
Schulz-Gambard, J., Feierabend, C., & Hommel, B. (1988). The experience of crowding in real life environments. In D. Canter (Ed.), Environmental Social Psychology (pp.94-105). Kluwer, Dordrecht, Netherlands.
Schuurman, B., & Horgan, J.G. (2016). Rationales for terrorist violence in homegrown jihadist groups: A case study from the Netherlands. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 27, 55-63. doi. 10.1016/j.avb.2016.02.005
START, (2015). National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START) 2015. Global Terrorism Database, Data file. Accessed: April 2016. [Retrieved from].
Thiessen, D.D., & Rodgers, D.A. (1961). Population density and endocrine function. Psychological Bulletin, 58(6), 441-451. doi. 10.1037/h0042778
Thomas, M.A. (2010). What do the worldwide governance indicators measure? European Journal of Development Research, 22(1), 31-54. doi. 10.1057/ejdr.2009.32
UNDP, (2016). United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Reports. Accessed: March 2016. [Retrieved from].
United Nations, (2016). United Nations Action to Counter Terrorism, Accessed: 4th October, 2016. [Retrieved from].
Valins, S., & Baum, A. (1973). Residential group sizes, social interaction, and crowding. Environment and Behavior, 5(4), 421-439. doi. 10.1177/001391657300500404
Valli V., & Saccone D. (2011). Economic development and population growth: an inverted-U shaped curve? Working paper No. 05/2011, Department of Economics, University of Torino, Italy.
van Bergen, D.D., Feddes, A.F., Doosje, B., & Pels T.V.M. (2015). Collective identity factors and the attitude toward violence in defense of ethnicity or religion among Muslim youth of Turkish and Moroccan Descent. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 47, 89-100. doi. 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2015.03.026
Verbrugge, L.M., & Taylor, R.B. (1980). Consequences of population density and size. Urban Affairs Quarterly, 16(2), 135-160. doi. 10.1177/107808748001600202
Visaria, P. (1989). Population theory and sustainable development, Population Bulletin of the United Nations, 27, 1-29.
World Bank, (2008). World development indicators. Accessed: February, 2016. [Retrieved from].
- There are currently no refbacks.
Journal of Economics Bibliography - J. Econ. Bib. - JEB - www.kspjournals.org
Copyright © KSP Library