How do Different Age Groups Approach Work in Turkey?

Sırma SÖNMEZER

Abstract


Abstract. The main purpose of this study is to understand the impact of age on work values and work centrality. The study was conducted in Istanbul, Turkey with the participation of 935 university graduate, corporate white-collar employees of large companies in Istanbul. In-depth interviews were conducted for the qualitative stage and a web-based survey was administered for the quantitative stage of data collection. An important contribution of this study is the emic items identified for the Turkish work context. These emic items are suggested to be incorporated to work values inventory for future research. The results indicated differences in work values among different age groups as well as changes among age groups in the level of importance of work.

Keywords. Work values, Work centrality, Age, Turkey.

JEL. J50, J60, J61.


Keywords


Work values; Work centrality; Age; Turkey.

Full Text:


References


Acar, F. (2013). Türkiye ekonomisine genel bakış (2001-2013). ÇSGB, Çalışma Dünyası Dergisi, 1(2), 15-32.

Adkins, C.L. & Naumann, S.E. (2001). Situational constraints on the achievement performance relationships: A service sector study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 22(4), 453-465. doi. 10.1002/job.96

Arvey, R.D., Harpaz, I., & Liao, H. (2004). Work centrality and post-award work behavior of lottery winners. The Journal of Psychology, 138(5), 404-420. doi. 10.3200/JRLP.138.5.404-420

Bal, P.M. & Kooij, T.A.M. (2011). The relations between work centrality, psychological contracts, and job attitudes: The influence of age. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 20(4), 497-523. doi. 10.1080/13594321003669079

Brooke, P.P.Jr., Russell, D., & Price, J.L. (1988). Discriminant validation of measures of job satisfaction, job Development, and organizational commitment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 73(2), 139-145. doi. 10.1037/0021-9010.73.2.139

Cherrington, D.J., Condie, S.J. & England, J.L. (1979). Age and work values. Academy of Management Journal, 22(3), 617-623. doi. 10.2307/255750

Cron, W.L., & Slocum, J.W.Jr. (1986). The influence of career stages on salespeople's job attitudes, work perceptions, and performance. Journal of Marketing Research, 23(2), 119-129. doi. 10.2307/3151659

Diefendorff, J.M., Brown, D.J., Kamin, A.M., & Lord, R.G. (2002). Examining the roles of job development and work centrality in predicting organizational citizenshipbehaviors and job performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23(1), 93-108. doi. 10.1002/job.123

Dubin, R., Champoux, J.E., & Porter, L.W. (1975). Central life interests and organizational commitment of blue-collar and clerical workers. Administrative Science Quarterly, 20(3), 411-421. doi. 10.2307/2392000

Ebner, N.C., Freund, A.M., & Baltes, P.B. (2006). Developmental changes in personal goal orientation from young to late adulthood: From striving for gains to maintenance and prevention of losses. Psychology and Aging, 21(4), 664-678. doi. 10.1037/0882-7974.21.4.664

Elizur, D. (1984). Facets of work values: A structural analysis of work outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69(3), 379-389. doi. 10.1037/0021-9010.69.3.379

Elizur, D., Borg, I., Hunt, R., & Beck, I.M. (1991). The structure of work values: A cross cultural comparison. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 12(1), 21-38. doi. 10.1002/job.4030120103

Elizur, D. (1996). Work values and commitment. International Journal of Manpower, 17(3), 25-30.

Elizur, D., & Sagie, A. (1999). Facets of personal values: A structural analysis of life and work values. International Association of Applied Psychology, 48(1), 73-87. doi. 10.1111/j.1464-0597.1999.tb00049.x

Elizur, D., & Koslowsky, M. (2001). Values and organizational commitment. International Journal of Manpower, 22(7), 593-599. doi. 10.1108/01437720110408967

England, G.W. (1991). The meaning of working in the USA: recent changes. European Work and Organizational Psychologist, 1(2-3), 111-124. doi. 10.1080/09602009108408516

Feather, N.T., & Rauter, K.A. (2004). Organizational citizenship behaviours in relation to job status, job insecurity, organizational commitment and identification, job satisfaction and work values. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77(1), 81-95. doi. 10.1348/096317904322915928

Freund, A.M. (2006). Age-differential motivational consequences of optimization versus compensation focus in younger and older adults. Psychology and Aging, 21(2), 240-252. doi. 10.1037/0882-7974.21.2.240

George, J.M., & Jones, G.R. (1997). Experiencing work: Values, attitudes, and moods. Human Relations, 50(4), 393-416. doi. 10.1023/A:1016954827770

Glenn, N.D., Taylor, P.A., & Weaver, C.D. (1977). Age and job satisfaction among males and females: A multivariate, multisurvey study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62(2), 189-193. doi. 10.1037/0021-9010.62.2.189

Gorn, G.J., & Kanungo, R.N. (1980). Job development and motivation: Are intrinsically motivated managers more job involved?. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 26(2), 265-277. doi. 10.1016/0030-5073(80)90059-8

Gould, S., & Hawkins, B.L. (1978). Organizational career stage as a moderator of the satisfaction-performance relationship. Academy of Management Journal, 21(3), 434-450. doi. 10.2307/255725

Gould, S. (1979). Age, job complexity, satisfaction, and performance. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 14(2), 209-223. doi. 10.1016/0001-8791(79)90071-X

Gould, S., & Werbel, J.D. (1983). Work involvement: A comparison of dual wage earner and single wage earner families. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68(2), 2, 313-319. doi. 10.1037/0021-9010.68.2.313

Hall, D.T., & Mansfield, R. (1975). Relationships of age and seniority with career variables of engineers and scientists. Journal of Applied Psychology, 60(2), 201-210. doi. 10.1037/h0076549

Harpaz, I. (1999). The transformation of work values in Israel. Monthly Labor Review, 122(5), 46-50.

Harpaz, I., & Fu, X. (2002). The structure of the meaning of work: A relative stability amidst change. Human Relations, 55(6), 639-668. doi. 10.1177/0018726702556002

Hirschfeld, R.R., & Feild, H.S. (2000). Work Centrality and work alienation: Distinct aspects of a general commitment to work. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21(7), 789-800. doi. 10.1002/1099-1379(200011)21:7<789::AID-JOB59>3.0.CO;2-W

Johnson, M.K., & Monseraud, M.A. (2012). Work value development from adolescence to adulthood. Advances in Life Course Research, 17(2), 45-58. doi. 10.1016/j.alcr.2012.02.002

Judge, T.A., & Bretz, R.D.Jr. (1992). Effects of work values on job choice decisions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77(3), 261-271. doi. 10.1037//0021-9010.77.3.261

Kalleberg, A.L. (1977). Work values and job rewards: a theory of job satisfaction. American Sociological Review, 42(1), 124-143.

Kalleberg, A.L., & Loscocco, K.A. (1983). Aging, values, and rewards: Explaining age differences in job satisfaction. American Sociological Review, 48(1), 78-90. doi. 10.2307/2095146

Kalleberg, A.L., & Stark, D. (1993). Career strategies in capitalism and socialism: Work values and job rewards in the United States and Hungary. Social Forces, 72(1), 181-198. doi. 10.1093/sf/72.1.181

Kanungo, R.N. (1982). Measurement of job and work Development. Journal of Applied Psychology, 67(3), 341-349. doi. 10.1037/0021-9010.67.3.341

Levinson, D.J., Darrow, C.N., Klein, E.B., Levinson, M.H., & McKee, B. (1978).The Seasons of a Man's Life. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

Levinson, D.J. (1986). A conception of adult development. American Psychologist, 41(1), 3-13. doi. 10.1037/0003-066X.41.1.3

Li, W., Liu, X., & Wan, W. (2008). Demographic effects of work values and their management implications. Journal of Business Ethics, 81(4), 875-885. doi. 10.1007/s10551-007-9554-6

Locke, E.A. (1976). The nature and causes of job satisfaction. in M. D. Dunnette (Ed.), Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (pp. 1297-1349). Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.

Lodahl, T.N., & Kejner, N. (1965). The definition and measurement of job development. Journal of Applied Psychology, 54(4), 305-312. doi. 10.1037/h0029692

Lorence, J. (1987). A test of “gender” and “job” models of sex differences in job development. Social Forces, 66(1), 121-142. doi. 10.1093/sf/66.1.121

Lorence, J. (1987). Age differences in work development: Analyses of three explanations. Work and Occupations, 14(4), 533-557. doi. 10.1177/0730888487014004004

Lüküslü, D. (2010). Türkiye’de gençlik kavramı. Gençlik Çalışmaları Birimi, [Retrieved from].

Mannheim, B. (1975). A comparative study of work centrality, job rewards, and satisfaction. Sociology of Work and Occupations, 2(1), 79-102. doi. 10.1177/073088847500200104

Mannheim, B., & Cohen, A. (1978). Multivariate analyses of factors affecting work role centrality of occupational categories. Human Relations, 31(6), 525-553. doi. 10.1177/001872677803100604

Mannheim, B., & Rein, J. (1981). Work centrality of different age groups and the wish to discontinue work. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 13(3), 221-232. doi. 10.2190/T26A-3P8P-7YLQ-7K7R

Mannheim, B., (1993). Gender and the effects of demographics status and work values on work centrality. Work and Occupations, 20(1), 3-22. doi. 10.1177/0730888493020001001

Mannheim, B., Baruch, Y., & Tal, J. (1997). Alternative models for antecedents and outcomes of work centrality and job satisfaction of hi-tech personnel. Human Relations, 50(12), 1537-1562. doi. 10.1177/001872679705001204

Marini, M.M., Fan, P., Finley, E., & Beutel, A.M. (1996). Gender and job values. Sociology of Education, 69(1), 49-65.

Meyer, J.P., & Allen, N.J. (1987). A longitudinal analysis of the early development and consequences of organizational commitment. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 19(2), 199-215. doi. 10.1037/h0080013

Meyer, J.P., & Allen, N.J. (1988). Links between work experience and organizational commitment during the first year of employment: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 61(3), 195-209. doi. 10.1111/j.2044-8325.1988.tb00284.x

Meyer, J.P., Allen, N.J., & Smith, C.A. (1993). Commitment to organizations and occupations: Some methodological considerations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(4), 538–551. doi. 10.1037/0021-9010.78.4.538

Morrow, P.C., & McElroy, J.C. (1987). Work commitment and job satisfaction over three career stages. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 30(3), 330-346. doi. 10.1016/0001-8791(87)90009-1

Mottaz, C.J. (1985). The relative importance of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards as determinants of work satisfaction. The Sociological Quarterly, 26(3), 365-385. doi. 10.1111/j.1533-8525.1985.tb00233.x

Mottaz, C.J. (1987). Age and work satisfaction. Work and Occupations, 14(3), 387-409. doi. 10.1177/0730888487014003004

Nord, W.R., Brief, A.P., Atieh, J.M., & Doherty, E.M. (1990). Studying the meaning of work: The case of work values. In A.P. Brief & W.R. Nord (Eds.), Meanings of occupational work: A collection of essays, (pp. 21-64). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

OECD Report, Pensions at a Glance 2013 OECD and G20 indicators. [Retrieved from].

OECD – Turkey Report, Education at a glance 2014. [Retrieved from].

Ornstein, S., Cron, W.L., & Slocum, J.W.Jr. (1989). Life stage versus career stage: A comparative test of the theories of Levinson and Super. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10(2), 117-133. doi. 10.1002/job.4030100203

Palmore, E. (1978). When Can Age, Period, and Cohort be Separated?. Social Forces, 57(1), 82-295. doi. 10.1093/sf/57.1.282

Paullay, I.M., Alliger, G.M., & Stone-Romero, E.F. (1994). Construct validation of two instruments designed to measure job development and work centrality. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79(2), 224–228. doi. 10.1037/0021-9010.79.2.224

Rabinowitz, S., & Hall, D.T. (1977). Organizational research on job development. Psychological Bulletin, 84(2), 265-288. doi. 10.1037/0033-2909.84.2.265

Rabinowitz, S., & Hall, D.T. (1981). Changing correlates of job development in three career stages. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 18(2), 138-144. doi. 10.1016/0001-8791(81)90002-6

Ravlin. E,C., & Meglino, B.M. (1987). Effect of values on perception and decision making: A study of alternative work values measures. Journal of Applied Psychology, 72(4), 666-673. doi. 10.1037/0021-9010.72.4.666

Rhodes, S.R. (1983). Age-Related differences in work attitudes and behavior: A review and conceptual analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 93(3), 328-367. doi. 10.1037/0033-2909.93.2.328

Roe, R.A., & Ester, P. (1999). Values and work empirical findings and theoretical perspective. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 48(1), 1-21. doi. 10.1111/j.1464-0597.1999.tb00046.x

Rokeach, M. (1973).The Nature of Human Values. New York: The Free Press.

Rokeach, M. (1979).Understanding Human Values: Individual and societal. New York: The Free Press.

Rounds, J.B. (1990). The comparative and combined utility of work value and interest data in career counseling with adults. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 37(1), 32-45. doi. 10.1016/0001-8791(90)90005-M

Ros, M., Schwartz, S.H., & Surkiss, S. (1999). Basic individual values, work values, and the meaning of work. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 48(1), 49-71. doi. 10.1080/026999499377664

Rowe, R., & Snizek, W.E. (1995). Gender differences in work values: Perpetuating the myth. Work and Occupations, 22(2), 215-229. doi. 10.1177/0730888495022002005

Ruiz-Quintanilla, S.A., & Wilpert, B. (1991). Are work meanings changing?, European Work and Organizational Psychologist, 1(2-3), 91-109. doi. 10.1080/09602009108408515

Sagie, A., Elizur, D., & Koslowsky, M. (1996). Work values: a theoretical overview and a model of their effects. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 17(S1), 503-514. doi. 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1379(199612)17:1+<503::AID-JOB820>3.0.CO;2-Q

Saleh, S.D., & Hosek J. (1976). Job Development: concepts and measurements. Academy of Management Journal, 19(2), 213-224. doi. 10.2307/255773

Schmidt, J.A., & Lee, K. (2008). Voluntary retirement and organizational turnover intentions: The differential associations with work and non-work commitment constructs. Journal of Business Psychology, 22(4), 297-309. doi. 10.1007/s10869-008-9068-y

Schwartz, S.H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 25, 1-65. doi. 10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60281-6

SGK Emeklilik Şartları, (2017). [Retrieved from].

Siu, O. (2003). Job stress and job performance among employees in Hong Kong: The role of Chinese work values and organizational commitment. International Journal of Psychology, 38(6), 337-347. doi. 10.1080/00207590344000024

Slocum, J.W.Jr., & Cron, W. (1985). Job attitudes and performance during three career stages. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 26(2), 126-45. doi. 10.1016/0001-8791(85)90013-2

Smola, K.W., & Sutton, C.D. (2002). Generational differences: Revisiting generational work values for the new millennium. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23(4), 363-382. doi. 10.1002/job.147

Snir, R., & Harpaz, I. (2005). Test-retest reliability of the relative work centrality measure. Psychological Reports, 97(2), 559-562. doi. 10.2466/pr0.97.2.559-562

Steers, R.M., (1977). Antecedents and outcomes of organizational commitment. Administrative Science Quarterly, 22(1), 46-56. doi. 10.2307/2391745

Super, D.E. (1957). The psychology of careers. Harper & Row, New York.

Super, D.E. (1980). A life-span, life-space approach to career development. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 16(3), 282-298. doi. 10.1016/0001-8791(80)90056-1

Swaney, K.B., Allen, J., Casillas, A., Hanson, M.A., & Robbins, S.B. (2012). Interests, work values, and occupations: Predicting work outcomes with the work keys fit assessment. Journal of Career Assessment, 20(4), 359-374. doi. 10.1177/1069072712448730

Tevrüz, S., & Turgut T. (2004). Çalışma amaçlarının tesbiti ve çalışma amaçları testinin geliştirilmesi. Öneri Dergisi, 6(22), 33-44.

Tolbert, P.S. & Moen, P. (1998). Men’s and women’s definitions of ‘good’ jobs. Work and Occupations, 25(2), 168-194. doi. 10.1177/0730888498025002003

Ucanok, B. (2008). The effects of work values, work centrality and person-job fit on organizational citizenship behaviour.Ph.D Diss., Marmara University.

Warr, P. (1982). A national study of non-financial employment commitment. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 55(4), 297-312. doi. 10.1111/j.2044-8325.1982.tb00103.x

Warr, P. (2008). Work values: Some demographic and cultural correlates. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 81(4), 751-775. doi. 10.1348/096317907X263638

Weng, Q., McElroy, J.C., Morrow, P.C., & Liu, R. (2010). The relationship between career growth and organizational commitment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 77, 391-400. doi. 10.1016/j.jvb.2010.05.003

Witt, L.A., Patti, A.L. & Farmer, W.L. (2002). Organizational politics and work identity as predictors of organizational commitment. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32(3), 486-499. doi. 10.1111/j.1559-1816.2002.tb00226.x

Wright, J.D., & Hamilton, R.F. (1978). Work satisfaction and age: Some evidence for the `Job Change' hypothesis. Social Forces, 56(4), 1140-1158. doi. 10.1093/sf/56.4.1140




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1453/ter.v4i3.1275

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Turkish Economic Review - Turk. Econ. Rev. - TER - www.kspjournals.org

ISSN: 2149-0414. Editor : editor-ter@kspjournals.org   Secretarial: secretarial@kspjournals.com   Istanbul - Turkey.

Copyright © KSP Journals