Turning Human Waste into Renewable Energy: Opportunities and Policy Options for India

Sacchidananda MUKHERJEE, Debashis CHAKRABORTY

Abstract


Abstract. With rise in population and the ongoing urbanisation drive, the urge to ensure energy security both for the rural and urban areas has emerged as a major challenge in India. The demand for energy has increased in all spheres of life, e.g., for cooking, cultivation, production purposes, transportation, and so on. Although through various government initiatives, adoption of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) for cooking has increased, given the vast population, use of biofuels is expected to continue for poorer households. Generation of biogas from cattle waste in India has intensified through policies, but the same from human waste is still in a nascent stage. The present study explores the possibilities of recovering energy and nutrients from human wasteby discussing the present system of human waste collection, treatment and disposal in India, followed by the reasons behind the failures of the past initiatives (e.g., Ganga Action Plan, GAP). It further focuses on a few alternative systems and their technical feasibility. It is concluded that various ongoing policies, viz., National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG), ‘Swachh Bharat Mission’ (SBM)- should be coordinated for integrating collection and treatment of human waste for generation of renewable energy.

Keywords. Human waste management, Urban wastewater management, Renewable energy, Resource recovery, Biogas generation, Public health management, Government policy, Technology adoption, Energy policy, India.

JEL. I18, Q40, Q48.

Keywords


Human waste management; Urban wastewater management; Renewable energy; Resource recovery; Biogas generation; Public health management; Government policy; Technology adoption; Energy policy; India.

Full Text:


References


Adam, W.G. (1991). Municipal waste water and sewage sludge management in the EC, International and Comparative Law Review, 14(2), 403-411.

Ahn, S.J. & Dagmar G. (2012). Understanding Energy Challenges in India: Policies, Players and Issues, Paris: International Energy Agency and OECD. [Retrieved from].

Andreoli, C.V., Garbossa, L.H.P., Lupatiniand, G., Pegorini, E.S. (n.d). Wastewater Sludge Management: A Brazilian Approach, [Retrieved from].

Arvola, J., Belt, P., Harkonen, J., Kess, P., & Imppola, R. (2012). Biogas as an option for industrial applications, International Journal of Sustainable Economy, 4(1), 71–88. doi. 10.1504/IJSE.2012.043996

Ayub, S., & Khan, A.H. (2011). Landfill practice in India: A review, Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2011, 3(4):270-279.

Bontoux, L. (1999). The incineration of waste in Europe: Issues and perspectives: Report prepared by IPTS for the committee for environment, public health and consumer protection of the European Parliament, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, Sevilla, No.E-41092. [Retrieved from].

Central Pollution Control Board, (n.d). Status of sewage treatment plants in Ganga Basin, New Delhi: CPCB. No.110032. [Retrieved from].

Central Pollution Control Board –CPCB, (2009). Status of water supply, wastewater generation and treatment in class-I cities & class-II towns of India, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India, Control of Urban Pollution Series, No.CUPS/70/2009-10. [Retrieved from].

Centre for Science and Environment, (2013). Status paper for River Ganga: Past failures and current challenges, New Delhi: CSE India. [Retrieved from].

Chambers, R., & von Medeazza, G. (2013). Sanitation and stunting in India: Undernutrition’s blind spot, Economic and Political Weekly, 48(25), 15-18.

Das, P., & Tamminga, K.R. (2012). The ganges and the GAP: An assessment of efforts to clean a Sacred River, Sustainability, 4(8), 1647-1668. doi. 10.3390/su4081647

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (2014). Waste to energy project co-fermentation of organic waste and septage for energy production in Nashik, New Delhi: GIZ. [Retrieved from].

D'itri, F., Martínez, J.A., & Lambarri, M.A. (1981). Municipal Wastewater in Agriculture, New York: Academic Press.

Dube, R. (2014). Waste to energy - Nashik, India. Co-fermentation of kitchen waste and fecal sludge, World Water Week. [Retrieved from].

Ensink, J.H., Hoek, W., Matsuno, Y., Munir, S., & Aslam, M.R. (2002). Use of untreated wastewater in peri-urban agriculture in Pakistan: Risks and opportunities, International Water Management Institute, Research Report, No.64, [Retrieved from].

FICCI & UNEP (2016). Delivering a sustainable financial system in India - Final Report, Inquiry. [Retrieved from].

Ghosh, D. (2005). Ecology and traditional wetland practice: Lessons from wastwqater utilisation in the East Calcutta Wetlands, Worldview: Kolkata.

Government of India, (2015a). Energy Statistics 2015. [Retrieved from]..

Government of India, (2015b). The National Renewable Energy Act, [Retrieved from].

Government of India, (2014). Guidelines for Swachh Bharat mission (Gramin), [Retrieved from].

Government of India, (2011a). Scheme for provision of urban amenities in rural areas (PURA), New Delhi: Final Report of Working Group, Ministry of Rural Development. [Retrieved from].

Government of India, (2011b). Guidelines for appraisal and approval of projects/schemes eligible for financing under the National Clean Energy Fund, New Delhi: Department of Expenditure, Ministry of Finance. [Retrieved from].

Government of India, (2009). Status paper on River Ganga: State of environment and water quality, New Delhi: Ministry of Environment and Forests. [Retrieved from].

Government of India, (2008). A guide to decisionmaking: technology options for urban sanitation in India, New Delhi: Ministry of Urban Development. [Retrieved from].

Government of India, (n.d). National mission for clean Ganga, [Retrieved from].

Hussain, I., Sally, L.R., Hanjra, M.A., Marikar, F., & Hoek, W. (2002), Wastewater use in agriculture: Review of impacts and methodological issues in valuing impacts, International Water Management Institute, Working Paper No. 37. [Retrieved from].

Indian Institute of Technology, (2009). Evaluation of National Rural Employment Guarantee Act in Districts Cuddlore, Dindugal, Kanchipuram, Nagai and Thiruvallur, Tamil Nadu, Chennai: IIT. [Retrieved from].

International Energy Agency, (2015). India energy outlook, World Energy Outlook Special Report, Paris: IEA. [Retrieved from].

International Energy Agency, (2006). World Energy Outlook 2006, Paris: IEA. [Retrieved from].

International Energy Initiative, (2012). Powering a village sustainably: Generating electricity from waste-based biogas, Bangalore: IEI. [Retrieved from].

International Institute for Sustainable Development, (2014). Subsidies to liquefied petroleum gas in India: An overview of recent reforms, Manitoba: IISD. [Retrieved from].

Jadhav, G.S., Takale, K.R., Sanklecha, H.M., Shinde, A.S., Mandhare, P.T., & Pasalkar, S.B. (2015). Existing household biogas technology and its ground realities in rural India, International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 4(2), 545-49.

Jain, A., Agrawal, S., & Ganesan, K. (2014), Rationalising subsidies, reaching the underserved: Improving effectiveness of domestic LPG subsidy and distribution in India, New Delhi: Council on Energy, Environment and Water. [Retrieved from].

Jawurek, H.H., Frenz, D., & Myers, C. (1985), Biogas in small-scale rural electricity generation, R&D Journal, pp. 7-12.

Jha, P.K. (n.d). Recycling and reuse of human excreta from public toilets through biogas generation to improve sanitation, community health and environment, [Retrieved from].

Kankaria, A., Nongkynrih, B., & Gupta, S.K. (2014), Indoor air pollution in India: Implications of health and its control, Indian Journal of Community Medicine, 39(4), 203-207. doi. 10.4103/0970-0218.143019

Kattein, J. (2014). The Architecture Chronicle: Diary of an Architectural Practice, Farnham: Ashgate Publishing Limited.

Kumar, M.D., & Shah, T. (n.d), Groundwater pollution and contamination in India: The emerging challenge, [Retrieved from].

Minde, G.P., Magdum, S.S. & Kalyanraman, V. (2013). Biogas as a sustainable alternative for current energy need of India, Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environment, 4, 121-132.

Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas -MoP&NG, (2014). Roadmap for reduction in import dependency in the hydrocarbon sector by 2030 - Final report, Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas, Government of India, September

Ministry of New & Renewable Energy –MNRE, (n.d). Biogas generation, purification and bottling development in India - A case study. [Retrieved from].

Morishita, T. (1988). Environmental hazards of sewage and industrial effluents on irrigated farmlands in Japan’, in M.B. Pescod & A. Arar. Sevenoaks (eds), Treatment and use of sewage effluent for irrigation, United Kingdom: Butterworths.

Mukherjee, S. (2012). Role of farmers in protecting groundwater in Lower bhavani River Basin of Tamil Nadu, India, in A. Prakash, V.S. Saravanan, & J. Chourey (eds.), Interlacing Water and Human Health: Case Studies from South Asia, Sage India: New Delhi, Chapter 12, pp. 258-286.

Mukherjee, S. (2008). Economics of agricultural nonpoint source water pollution: A case study of groundwater nitrate pollution in the lower Bhavani River Basin, Tamilnadu, Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Madras, Chennai.

Mukherjee, S., & Chakraborty, D. (2017). Demand for infrastructure investment for water services - Key features and assessment methods, in J. Chaisse (Ed.), Charting the Water Regulatory Future: Issues, Challenges and Directions, Edward Elgar (forthcoming).

Mukherjee, S., & Nelliyat, P. (2007). Groundwater Pollution and Emerging Environmental Challenges of Industrial Effluent Irrigation in Mettupalayam Taluk, Tamilnadu”, Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture, IWMI, Colombo, Sri Lanka.Muzenda, Edison (2014), ‘Bio-methane Generation from Organic Waste: A Review’, Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science 2014, Vol II WCECS, pp. 647-652, 22-24 October, 2014, San Francisco, USA.

National Sample Survey Office –NSSO, (2016), Swachhta status report 2016, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India, New Delhi.

National Sample Survey Office –NSSO, (2015). Energy sources of Indian households for cooking and lighting, 2011-12, NSS 68th Round (July 2011 – June 2012), Report No. 567 (68/1.0/4), Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India, New Delhi. [Retrieved from].

Press Trust of India, (2016). Over half of rural population still defecate in the open: NSSO survey, April 14, Mumbai: The Indian Express.

Rajendran, K., Aslanzadeh, S., & Taherzadeh, M.J. (2012). Household biogas digesters - A review, Energies, 5(8), 2911-2942. doi. 10.3390/en5082911

Riek, I., Rücker, A., Schall, T., & Uhlig, M. (2012). Renewable energy generation from biomass - biogas in India, Seminar Paper, No. 6/2012, Center for Applied International Finance and Development (CAIFD), Nuremberg: Georg Simon Ohm University of Applied Sciences. [Retrieved from].

Rostmark, S., & Oberg, G. (2013). Sludge dewatering by freeze drying based on artificial freezing and convective drying with excess heat–cost efficiency and effect on pathogens, Unpublished Manuscript, personal communication.

Sarkhel, P. (2012). Municipal solid waste management in India: Environmental impacts and institutional reforms, in S. Mukherjee, & D. Chakraborty (Eds), Environmental Scenario in India: Successes and Predicaments, pp. 171-188, Abingdon: Routledge.

Schuster-Wallace, C.J., Wild, C., & Metcalfe, C. (2015). Valuing human waste as an energy resource: A research brief assessing the global wealth in waste, Hamilton: United Nations University Institute for Water, Environment and Health (UNU-INWEH). [Retrieved from].

Shah, A., & Sajitha, O.G. (2012). Water, health and poverty in South Asia: Examining the interface in India, in A. Prakash, V.S. Saravanan, & J. Chourey (Eds.), Interlacing Water and Human Health: Case Studies from South Asia, Sage India: New Delhi.

Shrimali, G., Slaski, X., Thurber, M.C., & Zerriffi, H. (2011). Improved stoves in India: A study of sustainable business models, Energy Policy, 39(12), 7543–7556. doi. 10.1016/j.enpol.2011.07.031

Srinivasan, P., & Ravindra, L.S. (2015). Causality among Energy Consumption, CO2 Emission, Economic Growth and Trade: A Case of India, Foreign Trade Review, 50(3), 168-189. doi. 10.1177/0015732515589441

Sukhsohale, N.D., Narlawar, U.W., Phatak, M.S. (2013). Indoor air pollution from biomass combustion and its adverse health effects in central India: An exposure-response study, Indian Journal of Community Medicine, 38(3), 162–167. doi. 10.4103/0970-0218.116353

Sulabh, (n.d). Community toilet linked biogas plant. [Retrieved from].

Tang, J. (2012). A cost‐benefit analysis of waste incineration with advanced bottom ash separation technology for a Chinese municipality – Guanghan. [Retrieved from].

The Energy and Resources Institute, (2010). India’s energy security: new opportunities for a sustainable future, New Delhi: TERI. [Retrieved from].

The Hindu, (2016). PM to launch Rs. 8,000 crore scheme for free LPG connections to poor. April 22, Chennai. [Retrieved from].

The Alternative, [2016). Sanawar school makes good use of its sewage. [Retrieved from].

United Nations Children's Fund and Food and Agriculture Organisation (2013), Water in India: Situation and Prospects, New Delhi: UNICEF and FAO. [Retrieved from].

Vögeli, Y., Lohri, C.R., Gallardo, A., Diener, S., & Zurbrügg, C. (2014). Anaerobic digestion of biowaste in developing countries: Practical information and case studies. Dübendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag). [Retrieved from].

World Bank, (2014). WASH POST-2015: proposed targets and indicators for drinking-water, sanitation and hygiene – consolidated factsheet, Washington DC: World Bank. [Retrieved from].

World Bank, (2013). Diagnostic Assessment of Select Environmental Challenges, New Delhi: Disaster Management and Climate Change Unit, Sustainable Development Department, World Bank. [Retrieved from].

World Bank, (1999). Municipal Solid Waste Incineration, Technical Guidance Report, Washington DC: World Bank. [Retrieved from].

Yadava, L.S., & Hesse, P.R. (1981). The Development and Use of Biogas Technology in Rural Areas of Asia’ (A Status Report 1981), Improving Soil Fertility through Organic Recycling, FAO/UNDP Regional Project RAS/75/004, Project Field Document No. 10, Food and Agriculture Organization and United Nations Development Program.

Zhang, Q.H. Yang, W.N., Ngo, H.H., Guo, W.S., Jin, P.K., Dzakpasu, M., Yang, S.J., Wang, Q., Wang, X.C., & Ao D. (2016). Current status of urban wastewater treatment plants in China, Environment International, 92–93, 11–22. doi. 10.1016/j.envint.2016.03.024




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1453/ter.v3i4.1099

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Turkish Economic Review - Turk. Econ. Rev. - TER - www.kspjournals.org

ISSN: 2149-0414. Editor : editor-ter@kspjournals.org   Secretarial: secretarial@kspjournals.com   Istanbul - Turkey.

Copyright © KSP Journals