Covid-19 in society between 2020 (without vaccinations) and 2021 (with vaccinations): A case study



Abstract. This study develops a comparative analysis of the effects of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) between April-June 2020 (without vaccinations) and April-June 2021 (with vaccinations) in Italy. The findings reveal that the dynamics of COVID-19 is declining because of its seasonality that reduce the effects in summer season. Hence, this study provides critical lessons that could be of benefit to countries for crisis management of pandemic diseases, showing how seasonality can reduce the diffusion of airborne disease of novel viral agents in summer.

Keywords. Pandemic diseases; Coronavirus; Vaccines; Vaccination campaigns; Health systems; Climate;  Seasonality.

JEL. C52; L25; M14.


Pandemic diseases; Coronavirus; Vaccines; Vaccination campaigns; Health systems; Climate; Seasonality.

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