Development and underdevelopment from the perspective of evolutionary socioeconomics in the post-COVID-19 era



Abstract. In economics, the problematics of development and underdevelopment is a field of conceptual controversies and constant “re-comprehension,” already since classical economists’ fundamental explorations. Nowadays, especially within the particularly pressing conditions caused by the global pandemic of COVID-19, it seems that this field of research and scientific knowledge must be profoundly re-fertilized in analytical and explanatory terms. The current crisis seems to function as a catalyst for various structural changes globally, leading to a necessary reorientation of the related thematics towards exploring the inner evolutionary “mechanisms” that will drive socio-economic development (and underdevelopment) in the future. This article aims to study the conceptual evolution of the notions of development and underdevelopment in the light of modern evolutionary economics, which we think could offer a foundational repositioning at the interpretative level in response to the new emerging conditions. More specifically, this article tries to respond to what development and underdevelopment mean over time, where analytical readjustments the evolutionary economics lead to nowadays, and whether it is possible to counter-propose a multilevel approach that enriches the theoretical background for an interdisciplinary and unifying understanding of the specific problematics at the dawn of the new global reality that appears in the post-COVID-19 era. At first, we look at essential development and underdevelopment concepts by critically exploring corresponding basic definitions throughout time. Next, we study the essential and associated elements of evolutionary economics, in the light of the problematics of development and underdevelopment of our days, intending to reach a synthesizing theoretical perspective. We counter-propose the multilevel “development web” approach and analysis as a useful repositioned perspective on addressing the developmental/underdevelopmental problem since the compartmentalization of social sciences between the “micro, meso and macro” approaches seems progressively inadequate and sterile.

Keywords. Development, Underdevelopment, Evolutionary economics, Development web, Micro-meso-macro, Evolutionary microeconomics, Evolutionary mesoeconomics, Evolutionary macroeconomics.

JEL. O40, B52.


Development; Underdevelopment; Evolutionary economics; Development web; Micro-meso-macro; Evolutionary microeconomics; Evolutionary mesoeconomics; Evolutionary macroeconomics.

Full Text:


Acemoglu, D. (2010). Challenges for social sciences: Institutions and economic development (American Economic Association, Ten Years and Beyond: Economists Answer NSF’s Call for Long-Term Research Agendas). doi. 10.2139/ssrn.1888510

Aggarwal, A. (2007). Impact of Special Economic Zones on employment, poverty and human development (Working Paper No. 194).

Alcouffe, A., & Ferrari, S. (2008, May 15). Growth versus development from Schumpeter to Georgescu-Roegen. 12th Annual Conference of the European Society for the history of economic thought, Prague.

Altman, S.A. (2020, May 20). Will Covid-19 have a lasting impact on globalization? Harvard Business Review. [Retrieved from].

Amin, S. (1971). L’accumulation a l’echelle mondiale: Critique de la theorie du sous-developpement [Global accumulation: A critique of the theory of underdevelopment]. Paris, France: Anthropos.

Andersen, E.S. (1996). Evolutionary economics: Post-Schumpeterian contributions. New York, US: Pinter.

Andersen, E.S. (2009). Schumpeter’s evolutionary economics: A theoretical, historical and statistical analysis of the engine of capitalism. Anthem Press. doi. 10.7135/UPO9781843313359

Andrikopoulos, A. (2019). Κοινωνική χρηματοοικονομική: Ρίσκο, απόδοση, κοινωνικός αντίκτυπος [Social finance: Risk, performance, social impact]. Athens, Greece: Propobos Publications.

Antonelli, C., & Ferraris, G. (2018). The microfoundations of evolutionary complexity: From the Marshallian search for equilibrium to Schumpeterian dynamics. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Antunes de Oliveira, F. (2020). Development for whom? Beyond the developed/underdeveloped dichotomy. Journal of International Relations and Development, 23(4), 924–946. doi. 10.1057/s41268-019-00173-9

Araujo, R.A., & Teixeira, J.R. (2011). Structural change and macrodynamic capabilities. Nova Economia, 21(3), 331–349. doi. 10.1590/S0103-63512011000300001

Arocena, R., & Senker, P. (2003). Technology, inequality, and underdevelopment: The case of Latin America. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 28(1), 15–33. doi. 10.1177/0162243902238493

Ashaver, B.T. (2013). Poverty, inequality and underdevelopment in third world countries: Bad state policies or bad global rules. Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 15(6), 33–38. doi. 10.9790/0837-1563338

Atkinson, R. (2012). Urban governance and competitiveness: Improving ‘urban attractiveness.’ In B. Egner, M. Haus, & G. Terizakis (Eds.), Regieren: Festschrift für Hubert Heinelt (pp. 297–312). Wiesbaden, Germany: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften. doi. 10.1007/978-3-531-19793-7_17

Augsburg, T. (2010). Becoming interdiscipliary: An introduction to interdisciplinary studies. Dubuque, IA, US: Kendall/Hunt Pub.

Azevêdo, D.G. (2020). Trade set to plunge as Covid-19 pandemic upends global economy. WTO Trade Forecast Press Conference, 8. [Retrieved from].

Becattini, G. (1990). The Marshallian industrial district as a socio-economic notion. In F. Pyke, G. Becattini, & W. Sengenberger (Eds.), Industrial districts and inter-firm co-operation in Italy. Switzerland: International Institute for Labour Studies.

Behrman, J.R., Chenery, H.B., & Srinivasan, T.N. (1988). Handbook of development economics. Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Oxford, UK: North-Holland Elsevier.

Bensaid, B., & Lesne, J.-P. (1996). Dynamic monopoly pricing with network externalities. International Journal of Industrial Organization, 14(6), 837–855. doi. 10.1016/0167-7187(95)01000-9

Bhattacharya, A., Khanna, D., Schweizer, C., & Bijapurkar, A. (2017, April 25). The new globalization: Going beyond the rhetoric. BCG Henderson Institute. [Retrieved from].

Borgatta, E.F., & Montgomery, R.J.V. (2000). Encyclopedia of Sociology. New York, US: Macmillan Library Reference USA.

Boschma, R.A., & Lambooy, J.G. (1999). Evolutionary economics and economic geography. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 9(4), 411–429. doi. 10.1007/s001910050089

Bose, S., Orosel, G., Ottaviani, M., & Vesterlund, L. (2006). Dynamic monopoly pricing and herding. The RAND Journal of Economics, 37(4), 910–928. doi. 10.1111/j.1756-2171.2006.tb00063.x

Bradshaw, Y.W. (1987). Urbanization and underdevelopment: A global study of modernization, urban bias, and economic dependency. American Sociological Review, 52(2), 224–239. doi. 10.2307/2095451

Brinkman, R. (1995). Economic growth versus economic development: Toward a conceptual clarification. Journal of Economic Issues, 29(4), 1171–1188. doi. 10.1080/00213624.1995.11505746

Brown, L., Postel, S., & Flavin, C. (1992). From growth to sustainable development. In R.J. A. Goodland, H.E. Daly, & S.E. Serafy, Population, technology, and lifestyle: The transition to sustainability (pp. 119–127). Washington DC, US; Covelo, CA, US: Island Press.

Campolina Diniz, C., & Vieira, D. J. (2016). Brazil: Accelerated metropolization and urban crisis. Area Development and Policy, 1(2), 155–177. doi. 10.1080/23792949.2016.1202085

Carayannis, E., & Campbell, D. (2019). Sustainable development, social ecology, and the quintuple helix. In E. Carayannis & D. Campbell (Eds.), Smart quintuple helix innovation systems: How social ecology and environmental protection are driving innovation, sustainable development and economic growth (pp. 31–37). Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. doi. 10.1007/978-3-030-01517-6_4

Carlson, C. (2018). Rethinking the agrarian question: Agriculture and underdevelopment in the Global South. Journal of Agrarian Change, 18(4), 703–721. doi. 10.1111/joac.12258

Chalmers, A.F. (Alan F. (1982). What is this thing called science?: An assessment of the nature and status of science and its methods. Milton Keynes, UK: Open University Press.

Charles Shapu, R., Ismail, S., Ahmad, N., Lim, P.Y., & Abubakar Njodi, I. (2020). Food security and hygiene practice among adolescent girls in Maiduguri metropolitan council, Borno state, Nigeria. Foods, 9(9), 1265. doi. 10.3390/foods9091265

Chatzinikolaou, D., & Vlados, Ch. (2019). Schumpeter, neo-Schumpeterianism, and Stra.Tech.Man evolution of the firm. Issues in Economics and Business (International Economics and Business), 5(2), 80–102. doi. 10.5296/ieb.v5i2.16097

Chen, H.-J. (2010). Life expectancy, fertility, and educational investment. Journal of Population Economics, 23(1), 37–56. doi. 10.1007/s00148-008-0202-y

Cherkaoui, M. (2003). The individual and the collective. European Review, 11(4), 489. doi. 10.1017/S1062798703000449

Chiras, D.D. (1995). Principles of sustainable development: A new paradigm for the twenty first century. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part C, 13(2), 143–178. doi. 10.1080/10590509509373475

Cohen, J., Jones, R., & Conway, D. (2005). Why remittances shouldn’t be blamed for rural underdevelopment in Mexico: A collective response to Leigh Binford. Critique of Anthropology, 25(1), 87–96. doi. 10.1177/0308275X05048614

Conceição, P., & United Nations Development Programme. (2019). Human development report 2019: Beyond income, beyond averages, beyond today: Inequalities in human development in the 21st century.

Dollar, D. (2001). Globalization, inequality, and poverty since 1980. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Dopfer, K, & Nelson, R. (2018). The evolution of evolutionary economics. In R. Nelson (Ed.), Modern evolutionary economics: An overview (pp.208–229). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. doi. 10.1017/9781108661928.007

Dopfer, K., Foster, J., & Potts, J. (2004). Micro-meso-macro. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 14(3), 263–279. doi. 10.1007/s00191-004-0193-0

Dopfer, K., & Potts, J. (2008). The general theory of economic evolution. London, UK; New York, US: Routledge. doi. 10.4324/9780203507407

Dosi, G., & Nelson, R. (2018). Technological advance as an evolutionary process. In R. Nelson (Ed.), Modern evolutionary economics: An overview (pp.35–84). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. doi. 10.1017/9781108661928.002

Downs, T.J. (2000). Changing the culture of underdevelopment and unsustainability. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 43(5), 601–621. doi. 10.1080/713676578

Ellingson, T.J. (2001). The myth of the noble savage. Berkeley, CA, US: University of California Press. doi. 10.1525/9780520925922

FAO. (2020). COVID-19 and rural poverty. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Fine, B. (2019). Economics and interdisciplinarity: One step forward, n steps back? Revista Crítica de Ciências Sociais, 119, 131–148. doi. 10.4000/rccs.9230

Foster, J. (1997). The analytical foundations of evolutionary economics: From biological analogy to economic self-organization. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 8(4), 427–451. doi. 10.1016/S0954-349X(97)00002-7

Fox, S. (2014). The political economy of slums: Theory and evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa. World Development, 54, 191–203. doi. 10.1016/j.worlddev.2013.08.005

Frank, A.G. (1966). The development of underdevelopment. Boston, MA, US: New England Free Press.

Friedman, T.L. (1999). The lexus and the olive tree: Understanding globalization. New York, US: Simon and Schuster.

Fromm, E. (1979). To have or to be? London, UK: Abacus.

Galbraith, J.K. (1987). Economics in perspective: A critical history. Houghton Mifflin.

Gavetti, G., Greve, H.R., Levinthal, D.A., & Ocasio, W. (2012). The behavioral theory of the firm: Assessment and prospects. The Academy of Management Annals, 6(1), 1–40. doi. 10.1080/19416520.2012.656841

Georgescu-Roegen, N. (1971). The entropy law and the economic process. Cambridge, MA, US: Harvard University Press.

Gillis, M., Perkins, D.H., Roemer, M., & Snodgrass, R.R. (1996). Economics of development. New York, US; London, UK: Norton.

Grinin, L., Korotayev, A., & Tausch, A. (2016). Economic cycles, crises, and the global periphery. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. doi. 10.1007/978-3-319-41262-7

Gul, F., Sonnenschein, H., & Wilson, R. (1986). Foundations of dynamic monopoly and the coase conjecture. Journal of Economic Theory, 39(1), 155–190. doi. 10.1016/0022-0531(86)90024-4

Hannesson, R. (2015). Ecofundamentalism: A critique of extreme environmentalism. Lanham, MD, US: Lexington Books.

Hanusch, H., & Pyka, A. (2007). Principles of Neo-Schumpeterian economics. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 31(2), 275–289. doi. 10.1093/cje/bel018

Haq, M. ul. (1999). Reflections on human development. Delhi, India; Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Hart, N. (2013). Themes in evolutionary economics. In N. Hart, Alfred Marshall and modern economics: Equilibrium theory and evolutionary economics (pp. 135–156). London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. doi. 10.1057/9781137029751_7

Hayek, F. A. (1988). The fatal conceit. The errors of socialism. Chicago, IL, US: The University of Chicago press. doi. 10.7208/chicago/9780226321158.001.0001

Heinrich, T. (2016). Evolution-based approaches in economics and evolutionary loss of information. Journal of Economic Issues, 50(2), 390–397. doi. 10.1080/00213624.2016.1176485

Heinrich, T. (2017). The narrow and broad approaches to evolutionary modeling in economics. Journal of Economic Issues, 51(2), 383–391. doi. 10.1080/00213624.2017.1320912

Helfat, C. E. (2018). The behavior and capabilities of firms. In R. Nelson (Ed.), Modern evolutionary economics: An overview (pp. 85–103). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. doi. 10.1017/9781108661928.003

Hodgson, G. (1993). The Mecca of Alfred Marshall. The Economic Journal, 103(417), 406–415. doi. 10.2307/2234779

Hodgson, G. (1994). Precursors of modern evolutionary economics: Marx, Marshall, Veblen, and Schumpeter. In R. England (Ed.), Evolutionary concepts in contemporary economics (pp.9–35). Ann Arbor, MI, US: The University of Michigan Press.

Hodgson, G. (1998). Competence and contract in the theory of the firm. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 35(2), 179–201. doi. 10.1016/S0167-2681(98)00053-5

Hodgson, G., & Lamberg, J.-A. (2018). The past and future of evolutionary economics: Some reflections based on new bibliometric evidence. Evolutionary and Institutional Economics Review, 15(1), 167–187. doi. 10.1007/s40844-016-0044-3

Hodgson, G.M. (2012). Thorstein Veblen: The father of evolutionary and institutional economics. In E. S. Reinert & F. Viano (Eds.), Thorstein Veblen: Economics for an age of crises (pp.283–296). London, UK: Anthem Press. doi. 10.7135/UPO9780857289223.012

Hosseini, H. (2003). Why development is more complex than growth: Clarifying some confusions. Review of Social Economy, 61(1), 91–110. doi. 10.1080/0034676032000050329

Hou, J., Walsh, P.P., & Zhang, J. (2015). The dynamics of Human Development Index. The Social Science Journal, 52(3), 331–347. doi. 10.1016/j.soscij.2014.07.003

ILO. (2020). ILO Monitor: COVID-19 and the world of work. Fifth edition. Switzerland: International Labour Organization.

IMF. (2020). A crisis like no other, an uncertain recovery (World Economic Outlook Reports, World Economic Outlook Update, June 2020).

International Civil Aviation Organization. (2020, November 12). Effects of novel coronavirus (COVID‐19) on civil aviation: Economic impact analysis. Montréal, Canada: Air Transport Bureau.

International Energy Agency. (2020). World energy outlook 2020 [Part of World Energy Outlook]. Paris, France: International Energy Agency.

Iraida, A. (1982). The contribution of the United Nation system to formulating development concepts. In UNESCO, Different Theories and Practices of Development (pp. 9–69). Paris, France: UNESCO.

Jalata, A. (2015). The triple causes of African underdevelopment: Colonial capitalism, state terrorism and racism. International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, 7(3), 75–91. doi. 10.5897/IJSA2014.0572

Kaldor, N. (1972). The irrelevance of equilibrium economics. The Economic Journal, 82(328), 1237–1255. doi. 10.2307/2231304

Kanbur, R. (2002). Economics, social science and development. World Development, 30(3), 477–486. doi. 10.1016/S0305-750X(01)00117-6

Kitching, G. (2012). Development and underdevelopment in historical perspective: Populism, nationalism and industrialisation. London, UK: Routledge. doi. 10.4324/9780203835401

Klein, J.T. (1993). Interdisciplinarity: History, theory, and practice. Detroit, MI, US: Wayne State University Press.

Kotler, P., & Caslione, J. A. (2009). Chaotics: The business of managing and marketing in the age of turbulence. New York, US: American Management Association.

Kotz, D.M. (2003). Neoliberalism and the social structure of accumulation theory of long-run capital accumulation. Review of Radical Political Economics, 35(3), 263–270. doi. 10.1177/0486613403255542

Kpolovie, P.J., Ewansiha, S., & Esara, M. (2017). Continental comparison of Human Development Index (HDI). International Journal of Humanities, Social Sciences and Education, 4(1), 9–27. doi. 10.20431/2349-0381.0401002

Kumar, L.R., Talan, A., & Tyagi, R.D. (2020). Economic development and sustainability. In Sustainability (pp.157–181). Hoboken, NJ, US: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. doi. 10.1002/9781119434016.ch8

Kuznets, S. (1930). Static and dynamic economics. The American Economic Review, 20(3), 426–441.

Kuznets, S. (1955). Economic growth and income inequality. The American Economic Review, 45(1), 1–28.

Kwasnicki, W. (1999). Evolutionary economics and simulation. In T. Brenner (Ed.), Modelling learning in economics (pp. 3–44). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar. doi. 10.1007/978-1-4615-5029-7_1

Larionova, M., & Kirton, J. (2020). Global Governance After the COVID-19 Crisis. International Organisations Research Journal, 15(2), 7–23. doi. 10.17323/1996-7845-2020-02-01

Laudicina, P.A., & Peterson, E.R. (2016). From Globalization to Islandization (Global Business Policy Council (GBPC) /Research Report, p. 26). ATKearney.

Lee, K., & Malerba, F. (2018). Economic catch-up by latecomers as an evolutionary process. In R. Nelson (Ed.), Modern evolutionary economics: An overview (pp. 172–207). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. doi. 10.1017/9781108661928.006

Leibenstein, H. (1960). Economic backwardness and economic growth: Studies in the theory of economic development. New York, US: John Wiley and Sons.

Levallois, C. (2011). Why were biological analogies in economics “a bad thing”? Edith Penrose’s battles against Social Darwinism and McCarthyism. Science in Context, 24(4), 465–485. doi. 10.1017/S0269889711000196

Levinthal, D. (2006). The Neo-Schumpeterian theory of the firm and the strategy field. Industrial and Corporate Change, 15(2), 391–394. doi. 10.1093/icc/dtl004

Levy, R. (2002). Meso-social structures and stratification analysis: A missing link? Revue Suisse de Sociologie, 28(2), 193–215.

Magnusson, L. (1994). The Neo-Schumpeterian and evolutionary approach to economics—An introduction. In L. Magnusson (Ed.), Evolutionary and Neo-Schumpeterian Approaches to Economics (pp. 1–8). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer Netherlands. doi. 10.1007/978-0-585-35155-1_1

Mainzer, K. (2011). Interdisciplinarity and innovation dynamics. On convergence of research, technology, economy, and society. Poiesis & Praxis, 7(4), 275–289. doi. 10.1007/s10202-011-0088-8

Mann, S. (Ed.). (2011). Sectors matter! Exploring mesoeconomics. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer. doi. 10.1007/978-3-642-18126-9

Marinelli, M. (2018). How to build a ‘beautiful China’ in the Anthropocene. The political discourse and the intellectual debate on ecological civilization. Journal of Chinese Political Science, 23(3), 365–386. doi. 10.1007/s11366-018-9538-7

Marshall, A. (1890). Principles of Economics. London, UK: Macmillan.

Marx, K. (1867). Das Kapital: Volume I [The capital: Volume I]. Germany: Verlag von Otto Meisner.

Matthewman, S., & Huppatz, K. (2020). A sociology of Covid-19. Journal of Sociology. doi. 10.1177/1440783320939416

Mcdonough, T. (1995). Lenin, imperialism, and the stages of capitalist development. Science & Society, 59(3), 339–367.

McKay, E. (2020). Luddism, isolation and education. Journal for Activist Science and Technology Education, 11(2), 55–59. doi. 10.33137/jaste.v11i2.34535

McQuarie, D., & Denisoff, R. S. (1995). Readings in contemporary sociological theory: From modernity to post-modernity. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, US: Prentice Hall.

Menger, C. (1871). Principles of economics. Ludwig Von Mises Institute.

Meyer, J.W. (2019). The social construction of the “micro-social”. In P. Haack, J. Sieweke, & L. Wessel (Eds.), Microfoundations of institutions (Vol. 65B, pp. 409–418). Bingley, UK: Emerald Publishing Limited. doi. 10.1108/S0733-558X2019000065B033

Mhlanga, D., & Moloi, T. (2020). COVID-19 and the digital transformation of education: What are we learning on 4IR in South Africa? Education Sciences, 10(7), 180. doi. 10.3390/educsci10070180

Michaelides, P. G., & Milios, J. G. (2009). Joseph Schumpeter and the German Historical School. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 33(3), 495–516. doi. 10.1093/cje/ben052

Mill, J.S. (1848). Principles of political economy. London, UK

Mirowski, P. (1992). Against mechanism: Protecting economics from science. Lanham, MD, US: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Mises, L. von. (1949). Human action: A treatise on economics (first edition in 1949, New Haven: Yale University Press). Ludwig von Mises Institute.

Modiba, M.M., & Kekwaletswe, R.M. (2020). Technological, organizational and environmental framework for digital transformation in South African financial service providers. International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology, 5(5), 180–196. doi. 10.38124/IJISRT20MAY223

Monasterolo, I., Roventini, A., & Foxon, T.J. (2019). Uncertainty of climate policies and implications for economics and finance: An evolutionary economics approach. Ecological Economics, 163, 177–182.

Moore, J. (1993). Predators and prey: A new ecology of competition. Harvard Business Review, 71(3), 75–86.

Morabito, J., Sack, I., & Bhate, A. (2018). The basics of design in the knowledge era: Dialectic and synthesis. In J. Morabito, I. Sack, & A. Bhate, Designing Knowledge Organizations: A Pathway to Innovation Leadership (pp. 74–77). New Jersey, US: John Wiley & Sons.

Nelson, R. (2018). Economics from an evolutionary perspective. In R. Nelson (Ed.), Modern evolutionary economics: An overview (pp. 1–34). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. doi. 10.1017/9781108661928.001

Nelson, R., & Winter, S. (1982). An evolutionary theory of economic change. Cambridge, MA; London, UK: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Nnadozie, E., & Jerome, A. (2019). Definition and measurement of growth and development. In E. Nnadozie & A. Jerome (Eds.), African Economic Development (pp. 39–56). Bingley, UK: Emerald Publishing Limited. doi. 10.1108/978-1-78743-783-820192003

OECD. (2018). Development co-operation report 2018: Joining forces to leave no one behind. Paris, France: OECD. doi. 10.1787/dcr-2018-en

OECD. (2020). E-commerce in the time of COVID-19 (Tackling Coronavirus (COVID-19): Contributing to a Global Effort). Secretary-General of the OECD.

Okafor, E.E., Akinwale, A.A., & Doyin-Hassan, A. (2007). Feminization of underdevelopment in Nigeria: Some theoretical issues. The Anthropologist, 9(3), 237–245. doi. 10.1080/09720073.2007.11891006

Pacheco, R.C.S., Manhães, M., & Maldonado, M.U. (2017). Innovation, interdisciplinarity, and creative destruction. In R. Frodeman (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of interdisciplinarity (Second Edition, Vol. 1, pp. 303–318). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. doi. 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780198733522.013.25

Palvia, P., Baqir, N., & Nemati, H. (2018). ICT for socio-economic development: A citizens’ perspective. Information & Management, 55(2), 160–176. doi. 10.1016/

Papanek, G. (2002). Economic growth versus economic development. Periodica Polytechnica Social and Management Sciences, 10(2), 201–213.

Peet, R., & Hartwick, E. (2015). Theories of development: Contentions, arguments, alternatives (3rd edition). New York, US: Guilford Publications.

Peneder, M. (2017). Competitiveness and industrial policy: From rationalities of failure towards the ability to evolve. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 41(3), 829–858. doi. 10.1093/cje/bew025

Peng, B., Sheng, X., & Wei, G. (2020). Does environmental protection promote economic development? From the perspective of coupling coordination between environmental protection and economic development. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27(31), 39135–39148. doi. 10.1007/s11356-020-09871-1

Penrose, E.T. (1952). Biological analogies in the theory of the firm. The American Economic Review, 42(5), 804–819.

Perez, C. (2010). Technological revolutions and techno-economic paradigms. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 34(1), 185–202. doi. 10.1093/cje/bep051

Permanyer, I., & Smits, J. (2020). Inequality in human development across the globe. Population and Development Review, 46(3), 583–601. doi. 10.1111/padr.12343

Perrotta, C. (2016). Serra and underdevelopment. In R. Patalano & S. A. Reinert (Eds.), Antonio Serra and the Economics of Good Government (pp. 214–233). London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan UK. doi. 10.1057/9781137539960_11

Perroux, F. (1969). L’économie du XXe siècle. Paris, France: Presses Universitaires de France.

Pindyck, R.S. (1985). The measurement of monopoly power in dynamic markets. The Journal of Law and Economics, 28(1), 193–222. doi. 10.1086/467080

Porter, M. (1998). Location, clusters, and the “new” microeconomics of competition. Business Economics, 33(1), 7–13.

Potts, J. (2017). Institutions hold consumption on a leash: An evolutionary economic approach to the future of consumption. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 27(2), 239–250. doi. 10.1007/s00191-015-0437-1

Pyka, A., & Nelson, R. (2018). Schumpeterian competition and industrial dynamics. In R. Nelson (Ed.), Modern evolutionary economics: An overview (pp. 1–34). Cambridge University Press.

Pyka, A., Saviotti, P., & Nelson, R. (2018). Evolutionary perspectives on long run economic development. In R. Nelson (Ed.), Modern evolutionary economics: An overview (pp. 143–171). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. doi.

Rodrik, D. (2011). The globalization paradox: Democracy and the future of the world economy. New York, US: W.W Norton & Company. doi.

Rosenberg, N. (1994). Exploring the black box: Technology, economics, and history. Cambridge, UK; New York, US: Cambridge University Press.

Rowntree, B.S. (1941). Poverty and progress: A second social survey of York. London, UK: Buckley Press.

Ruttan, V.W. (1998). The new growth theory and development economics: A survey. The Journal of Development Studies, 35(2), 1–26. doi. 10.1080/00220389808422562

Safarzyńska, K., & van den Bergh, J.C.J.M. (2010). Evolutionary models in economics: A survey of methods and building blocks. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 20(3), 329–373. doi. 10.1007/s00191-009-0153-9

Saxena, N.C. (2018). Hunger, under-nutrition and food security in India. In Poverty, Chronic Poverty and Poverty Dynamics (pp. 55–92). Singapore: Springer. doi. 10.1007/978-981-13-0677-8_4

Schubert, C. (2013). How to evaluate creative destruction: Reconstructing Schumpeter’s approach. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 37(2), 227–250. doi. 10.1093/cje/bes055

Schumpeter, J. (1939). Business cycles: A theoretical, historical and statistical analysis of the capitalist process. New York, US; London, UK: McGraw-Hill.

Schumpeter, J. (1942). Capitalism, socialism and democracy (Edition published in the Taylor&Francis e-Library, 2003). New York, US; London, UK: Harper & Brothers.

Schumpeter, J. (1954). History of economic analysis (Edition published in the Taylor&Francis e-Library, 2006). New York, U: Oxford University Press.

Schütz, M., & Rainer, A. (2016). J.A. Schumpeter and T.B. Veblen on economic evolution: The dichotomy between statics and dynamics. The European Journal of the History of Economic Thought, 23(5), 718–742. doi. 10.1080/09672567.2015.1018294

Sica, E. (2016). Economic theories of eco-innovations: A comparison between the neoclassical and evolutionary approaches. International Journal of Innovation and Sustainable Development, 10(1), 87–102. doi. 10.1504/IJISD.2016.073417

Smith, A. (1776). An inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations. Published in 2005 in an electronic classics series publication. Jim Manis, Editor.

Snyder, H. (2019). Literature review as a research methodology: An overview and guidelines. Journal of Business Research, 104, 333–339. doi. 10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.07.039

Soto, H. de. (2000). The mystery of capital: Why capitalism triumphs in the West and fails everywhere else. New York, US: Basic Books.

Stehr, N., & Weingart, P. (Eds.). (2000). Practising interdisciplinarity. Toronto, CA; Buffalo, NY, US: University of Toronto Press. doi. 10.3138/9781442678729

Taylor, I. (2016). BRICS in Africa and underdevelopment: How different? In S. F. Christensen & L. Xing (Eds.), Emerging powers, emerging markets, emerging societies: Global responses (pp. 162–184). London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan UK. doi. 10.1007/978-1-137-56178-7_7

UNESCO, UNICEF, & World Bank. (2020). What have we learnt? Overview of findings from a survey of ministries of education on national responses to COVID-19. UNESCO, UNICEF, World Bank.

United Nations. (2020). Global Humanitarian Response Plan: COVID-19 (United Nations Coordinated Appeal: April – December 2020).

Urbina, D.A., & Ruiz‐Villaverde, A. (2019). A critical review of homo economicus from five approaches. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 78(1), 63–93. doi. 10.1111/ajes.12258

van Wijk, J., Zietsma, C., Dorado, S., de Bakker, F. G. A., & Martí, I. (2019). Social innovation: Integrating micro, meso, and macro level insights from institutional theory. Business & Society, 58(5), 887–918. doi. 10.1177/0007650318789104

Veblen, T. (1898). Why is economics not an evolutionary science? The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 12(4), 373–397. doi. 10.2307/1882952

Vlados, Ch. (2019a). On a correlative and evolutionary SWOT analysis. Journal of Strategy and Management, 12(3), 347–363. doi. 10.1108/JSMA-02-2019-0026

Vlados, Ch. (2019b). Porter’s diamond approaches and the competitiveness web. International Journal of Business Administration, 10(5), 33–52. doi. 10.5430/ijba.v10n5p33

Vlados, Ch. (2019c). The Classical and Neoclassical theoretical traditions and the evolutionary study of the dynamics of globalization. Journal of Economics and Political Economy, 6(3), 257–280. doi. 10.1453/jepe.v6i3.1941

Vlados, Ch. (2019d). Notes on the main analytical insufficiencies of the Marxist theoretical tradition for the comprehension of the contemporary global economy. Journal of Economic and Social Thought, 6(3), 132–155. doi. 10.1453/jest.v6i3.1942

Vlados, Ch. (2020). The growth and development analytical controversies in economic science: A reassessment for the post-Covid-19 era. Journal of Economics and Political Economy, 7(4), 209–233.

Vlados, Ch., & Chatzinikolaou, D. (2019). Business ecosystems policy in Stra.Tech.Man terms: The case of the Eastern Macedonia and Thrace region. Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Innovation, 15(3), 163–197. doi. 10.7341/20191536

Vlados, Ch., & Chatzinikolaou, D. (2020). Macro, meso, and micro policies for strengthening entrepreneurship: Towards an integrated competitiveness policy. Journal of Business & Economic Policy, 7(1), 1–12. doi. 10.30845/jbep.v7n1a1

Vlados, Ch., Chatzinikolaou, D., Katimertzopoulos, F., & Koutroukis, T. (2019). Regional underdevelopment and less developed business ecosystems: The case of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace. Bulletin of Applied Economics, 6(2), 31–44.

Vlados, Ch., Deniozos, N., & Chatzinikolaou, D. (2018a). The possible paths of a new globalization. International Journal of Development and Sustainability, 7(9), 2310–2333. doi. 10.5539/ibr.v11n8p9

Vlados, Ch., Deniozos, N., & Chatzinikolaou, D. (2018b). Global crisis, innovation and change management: Towards a new systemic perception of the current globalization restructuring. International Business Research, 11(8), 9–29. doi. 10.5539/ibr.v11n8p9

Vlados, Ch., Deniozos, N., & Chatzinikolaou, D. (2019). Dialectical prerequisites on geopolitics and geo-economics in globalization’s restructuration era. Journal of Economic and Social Thought, 6(2), 65–92. doi. 10.1453/jest.v6i2.1877

Vlados, Ch., Deniozos, N., Chatzinikolaou, D., & Demertzis, M. (2018). Towards an evolutionary understanding of the current global socio-economic crisis and restructuring: From a conjunctural to a structural and evolutionary perspective. Research in World Economy, 9(1), 15–33. doi. 10.5430/rwe.v9n1p15

Wang, G.G., Korte, R.F., & Sun, J. Y. (2008). Development economics: A foundation for HRD policy studies in developing countries. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 10(6), 848–862. doi. 10.1177/1523422308324666

WHO Director-General. (2020, July 13). WHO Director-General’s opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19—23 July 2020. [Retrieved from].

William T. Waller, Jr. (1982). The evolution of the Veblenian dichotomy: Veblen, Hamilton, Ayres, and Foster. Journal of Economic Issues, 16(3), 757–771. doi. 10.1080/00213624.1982.11504031

Williams, H. (1989). Hegel, Heraclitus, and Marx’s dialectic. New York, US: St. Martin’s Press.

Witt, U. (2008). What is specific about evolutionary economics? Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 18(5), 547–575. doi. 10.1007/s00191-008-0107-7

World Bank (Ed.). (2019). World development report 2019: The changing nature of work. Washington, DC, US: World Bank.

World Bank. (2020). Global Economic Prospects. Washington, DC: World Bank. doi. 10.1596/978-1-4648-1553-9

Zezza, A., & Llambı́, L. (2002). Meso-economic filters along the policy chain: Understanding the links between policy reforms and rural poverty in Latin America. World Development, 30(11), 1865–1884. doi. 10.1016/S0305-750X(02)00113-4



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Journal of Economic and Social Thought - J. Econ. Soc. Thoug. - JEST -

ISSN: 2149-0422

Editor:   Secretarial:   Istanbul - Turkey.

Copyright © KSP Library