How does institutional change of democratization affect the origin and diffusion of technological innovation across countries?



Abstract. The main aim of this study is to explain how institutional change, based on processes of democratization, governs the origin and diffusion of technological innovation across economies. This study suggests that institutional change, based on a progressive democratization of countries, is a driving force of inventions and adoption of usable innovations in society. Policy makers, considering the positive associations between institutional change, based on a process of democratization, and paths of technological innovation, can propose best practices directed to support a higher economic freedom in society, effective regulation, higher economic and political stability, good economic governance and higher level of education system. Overall, then, institutional change, based on democratization, is a precondition for sustaining fruitful paths of technological innovation to govern the development of economies in the presence of globalization and geographical expansion in world economic system.

Keywords. Institutional change, Technological innovation, Patents, Technological change, Economic change, Social change, Regulatory quality, Rule of law, Political stability, Innovative outputs, Democracy, Democratization, Economic growth, Economic performances, Rich countries, Emerging economies.

JEL. B52, F55, O17, O31, O33, O35, O43, P10, P14, P48.


Institutional change; Technological innovation; Patents; Technological change; Economic change; Social change.

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