The politics of fear and relationship with the effective level of crime and socioeconomic issues: Empirical analysis of a case study
Abstract. The goal of this study is to analyze if a perceived risk of crime and social issues is supported by effective levels of empirical data. This study focuses on a vital case study, Italy that is one of the largest economies in Europe with socioeconomic issues also with a high flows of immigration from Africa and Middle East. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric analyses are applied on data from EUROSTAT and UNODC over a period from 2000 to 2019. Although levels of crime and immigration are declining over time, perceived risk of these social issues is high. In general, the perceived risk of crime seems to be overestimated. The only factor of concern in Italian economy for population is the increasing level of unemployment that can be a source of social issues. These results seem to be due to misleading information diffused by some political parties with media that induce people to overestimate perceived risk of crime and immigration: the politics of fear. The findings of this paper can provide a preliminary analysis and encourage the development of more in-depth studies to better understand the sources of fear of crime due to social issues and their possible interrelationships with social and political contexts in order to support appropriate policies in society.
Keywords. Violent crime, Homicide, Sexual violence, Fear of crime, Perceived risk, Vulnerability, Immigration, Poverty, Europe, Political party, Politics of fear.
JEL. I30, D63, F60.
Anderson, C.A. (2001). Heat and violence. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10(1), 33-38. doi. 10.1111/1467-8721.00109
Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Baumer, T.L. (1985). Testing a general model of fear of crime: Data from a national sample. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 22, 239-255. doi. 10.1177/0022427885022003004
Bell, B., Fasani, F., & Machin, S. (2013). Crime and immigration: Evidence from large immigrant waves. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 95(4), 1278-1290. doi. 10.1162/REST_a_00337
Bianchi, M., Buonanno, P., & Pinotti, P. (2012). Do immigrants cause crime? Journal of the European Economic Association, 10(6), 1318-1347. doi. 10.1111/j.1542-4774.2012.01085.x
Biderman, A.D., Johnson, L.A., McIntyre, J., & Weir, A.W. (1967). Report on a pilot study in the District of Columbia on victimization and attitudes toward law enforcement. President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice, Field Surveys I., Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.
Bilsky, W., & Wetzels, P. (1997). On the relationship between criminal victimisation and fear of crime. Psychology, Crime and Law, 3, 309-318. 10.1080/10683169708410826
Coccia, M. (2001). Satisfaction, work involvement and R&D performance. International Journal of Human Resources Development and Management, 1(2-3-4), 268-282. doi. 10.1504/IJHRDM.2001.001010
Coccia, M. (2003). Metrics of R&D performance and management of public research institute. Proceedings of IEEE- IEMC 03, Piscataway, pp.231-236.
Coccia, M. (2004). Spatial metrics of the technological transfer: analysis and strategic management. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 16(1), 31-52. doi. 10.1080/0953732032000175490
Coccia, M. (2005). Countrymetrics: valutazione della performance economica e tecnologica dei paesi e posizionamento dell’Italia, Rivista Internazionale di Scienze Sociali, CXIII(3), 377-412.
Coccia, M. (2005a). Metrics to measure the technology transfer absorption: analysis of the relationship between institutes and adopters in northern Italy. International Journal of Technology Transfer and Commercialization, 4(4), 462-486. doi. 10.1504/IJTTC.2005.006699
Coccia, M. (2005b). Technometrics: Origins, historical evolution and new direction, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 72(8), 944-979. doi. 10.1016/j.techfore.2005.05.011
Coccia, M. (2005c). Economics of scientific research: origins, nature and structure, Proceedings of Economic Society of Australia.
Coccia, M. (2006). Classifications of innovations: survey and future directions. Working Paper Ceris del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, 8(2), 1-19. [Retrieved from].
Coccia, M. (2006a). Analysis and classification of public research institutes. World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, 3(1), 1-16.
Coccia, M. (2007). A new taxonomy of country performance and risk based on economic and technological indicators, Journal of Applied Economics, 10(1), 29-42.
Coccia, M. (2008). Science, funding and economic growth: analysis and science policy implications. World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, 5(1), 1-27. doi. 10.1504/WRSTSD.2008.01781
Coccia, M. (2008a). Spatial mobility of knowledge transfer and absorptive capacity: analysis and measurement of the impact within the geoeconomic space. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 33(1), 105-122. doi. 10.1007/s10961-007-9032-4
Coccia, M. (2008b). New organizational behaviour of public research institutions: Lessons learned from Italian case study. International Journal of Business Innovation and Research, 2(4), 402–419. doi. 10.1504/IJBIR.2008.018589
Coccia, M. (2009). A new approach for measuring and analyzing patterns of regional economic growth: empirical analysis in Italy. Italian Journal of Regional Science- Scienze Regionali, 8(2), 71-95. doi. 10.3280/SCRE2009-002004
Coccia, M. (2009a). Measuring the impact of sustainable technological innovation, International Journal of Technology Intelligence and Planning, 5(3), 276-288. doi. 10.1504/IJTIP.2009.026749
Coccia, M. (2010). Public and private R&D investments as complementary inputs for productivity growth. International Journal of Technology, Policy and Management, 10(1/2), 73-91. doi. 10.1504/IJTPM.2010.032855
Coccia, M. (2010a). Foresight of technological determinants and primary energy resources of future economic long waves, International Journal of Foresight and Innovation Policy, 6(4), 225–232. doi. 10.1504/IJFIP.2010.037468
Coccia, M. (2010b). Energy metrics for driving competitiveness of countries: Energy weakness magnitude, GDP per barrel and barrels per capita. Energy Policy, 38(3), 1330-1339. doi. 10.1016/j.enpol.2009.11.011
Coccia, M. (2010c). Spatial patterns of technology transfer and measurement of its friction in the geo-economic space. International Journal of Technology Transfer and Commercialisation, 9(3), 255-267. doi. 10.1504/IJTTC.2010.030214
Coccia, M. (2010d). The asymmetric path of economic long waves, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 77(5), 730-738. doi. 10.1016/j.techfore.2010.02.003
Coccia, M. (2010e). Democratization is the driving force for technological and economic change, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 77(2), 248-264. doi. 10.1016/j.techfore.2009.06.007
Coccia, M. (2011). The interaction between public and private R&D expenditure and national productivity. Prometheus-Critical Studies in Innovation, 29(2), 121-130. doi. 10.1080/08109028.2011.601079
Coccia, M. (2012). Political economy of R&D to support the modern competitiveness of nations and determinants of economic optimization and inertia, Technovation, 32(6), 370–379. doi. 10.1016/j.technovation.2012.03.005
Coccia, M. (2012a). Evolutionary trajectories of the nanotechnology research across worldwide economic players. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 24(10), 1029-1050. doi. 10.1080/09537325.2012.705117
Coccia, M. (2012b). Evolutionary growth of knowledge in path-breaking targeted therapies for lung cancer: radical innovations and structure of the new technological paradigm. International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research, 3(3-4), 273-290. doi. 10.1504/IJBHR.2012.051406
Coccia, M. (2012c). Converging genetics, genomics and nanotechnologies for groundbreaking pathways in biomedicine and nanomedicine. International Journal of Healthcare Technology and Management, 13(4), 184-197. doi. 10.1504/IJHTM.2012.050616
Coccia, M. (2012d). Driving forces of technological change in medicine: Radical innovations induced by side effects and their impact on society and healthcare. Technology in Society, 34(4), 271-283. doi. 10.1016/j.techsoc.2012.06.002
Coccia, M. (2013). What are the likely interactions among innovation, government debt, and employment? Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research, 26(4), 456–471. doi. 10.1080/13511610.2013.863704
Coccia, M. (2013a). The effect of country wealth on incidence of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 141(2), 225-229. doi. 10.1007/s10549-013-2683-y
Coccia, M. (2014). Path-breaking target therapies for lung cancer and a far-sighted health policy to support clinical and cost effectiveness. Health Policy and Technology, 1(3), 74-82. doi. 10.1016/j.hlpt.2013.09.007
Coccia, M. (2014a). Emerging technological trajectories of tissue engineering and the critical directions in cartilage regenerative medicine. Int. J. Healthcare Technology and Management, 14(3), 194-208. doi. 10.1504/IJHTM.2014.064247
Coccia, M. (2014b). Converging scientific fields and new technological paradigms as main drivers of the division of scientific labour in drug discovery process: the effects on strategic management of the R&D corporate change. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 26(7), 733-749, doi. 10.1080/09537325.2014.882501
Coccia, M. (2014c). Driving forces of technological change: The relation between population growth and technological innovation-Analysis of the optimal interaction across countries, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 82(2), 52-65. doi. 10.1016/j.techfore.2013.06.001
Coccia, M. (2014). Socio-cultural origins of the patterns of technological innovation: What is the likely interaction among religious culture, religious plurality and innovation? Towards a theory of socio-cultural drivers of the patterns of technological innovation, Technology in Society, 36(1), 13-25. doi. 10.23760/2421-7158.2017.004
Coccia, M. (2014e). Religious culture, democratisation and patterns of technological innovation. International Journal of Sustainable Society, 6(4), 397-418. doi. 10.1504/IJSSOC.2014.066771
Coccia, M. (2014f). Structure and organisational behaviour of public research institutions under unstable growth of human resources, Int. J. Services Technology and Management, 20(4/5/6), 251–266. doi. 10.1504/IJSTM.2014.068857
Coccia, M. (2014g). Steel market and global trends of leading geo-economic players. International Journal of Trade and Global Markets, 7(1), 36-52, doi. 10.1504/IJTGM.2014.058714
Coccia, M. (2015). The Nexus between technological performances of countries and incidence of cancers in society. Technology in Society, 42, 61-70. doi. 10.1016/j.techsoc.2015.02.003
Coccia, M. (2015a). Patterns of innovative outputs across climate zones: the geography of innovation, Prometheus. Critical Studies in Innovation, 33(2), 165-186. doi. 10.1080/08109028.2015.1095979
Coccia, M. (2015b). General sources of general purpose technologies in complex societies: Theory of global leadership-driven innovation, warfare and human development, Technology in Society, 42, 199-226. doi. 10.1016/j.techsoc.2015.05.008
Coccia, M. (2015c). Spatial relation between geo-climate zones and technological outputs to explain the evolution of technology. Int. J. Transitions and Innovation Systems, 4(1-2), 5-21. doi. 10.1504/IJTIS.2015.074642
Coccia, M. (2015d). Technological paradigms and trajectories as determinants of the R&D corporate change in drug discovery industry. International Journal Knowledge and Learning, 10(1), 29-43. doi. 10.1504/IJKL.2015.071052
Coccia, M. (2016). Asymmetric paths of public debts and of general government deficits across countries within and outside the European monetary unification and economic policy of debt dissolution. The Journal of Economic Asymmetries, 15, 17-31. doi. 10.1016/j.jeca.2016.10.003
Coccia, M. (2016a). Radical innovations as drivers of breakthroughs: characteristics and properties of the management of technology leading to superior organizational performance in the discovery process of R&D labs. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 28(4), 381-395. doi. 10.1080/09537325.2015.1095287
Coccia, M. (2016). Problem-driven innovations in drug discovery: co-evolution of radical innovation with the evolution of problems, Health Policy and Technology, 5(2), 143-155. doi. 10.1016/j.hlpt.2016.02.003
Coccia, M. (2016c). The relation between price setting in markets and asymmetries of systems of measurement of goods. The Journal of Economic Asymmetries, 14(B), 168-178. doi. 10.1016/j.jeca.2016.06.001
Coccia, M. (2017). The source and nature of general purpose technologies for supporting next K-waves: Global leadership and the case study of the U.S. Navy's Mobile User Objective System, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 116, 331-339. doi. 10.1016/j.techfore.2016.05.019
Coccia, M. (2017a). Optimization in R&D intensity and tax on corporate proﬁts for supporting labor productivity of nations. The Journal of Technology Transfer, doi. 10.1007/s10961-017-9572-1
Coccia, M. (2017b). Varieties of capitalism’s theory of innovation and a conceptual integration with leadership-oriented executives: the relation between typologies of executive, technological and socioeconomic performances. Int. J. Public Sector Performance Management, 3(2), 148–168. doi. 10.1504/IJPSPM.2017.084672
Coccia, M. (2017c). Sources of disruptive technologies for industrial change. L’industria –rivista di Economia e Politicaindustriale, 38(1), 97-120.
Coccia, M. (2017d). Sources of technological innovation: Radical and incremental innovation problem-driven to support competitive advantage of firms. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 29(9), 1048-1061. doi. 10.1080/09537325.2016.1268682
Coccia, M. (2017e). A Theory of general causes of violent crime: Homicides, income inequality and deficiencies of the heat hypothesis and of the model of CLASH, Aggression and Violent Behavior, 37, 190-200. doi. 10.1016/j.avb.2017.10.005
Coccia, M. (2017f). New directions in measurement of economic growth, development and under development, Journal of Economics and Political Economy, 4(4), 382-395.
Coccia, M. (2017g). Disruptive firms and industrial change, Journal of Economic and Social Thought, 4(4), 437-450.
Coccia, M. (2017h). The Fishbone diagram to identify, systematize and analyze the sources of general purpose Technologies, Journal of Social and Administrative Sciences, 4(4), 291-303.
Coccia, M. (2018). A theory of the general causes of long waves: War, general purpose technologies, and economic change. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 128, 287-295 10.1016/j.techfore.2017.11.013
Coccia, M. (2018a). The relation between terrorism and high population growth, Journal of Economics and Political Economy, 5(1), 84-104.
Coccia, M. (2018c). Violent crime driven by income Inequality between countries, Turkish Economic Review, 5(1), 33-55.
Coccia, M. (2018d). The origins of the economics of innovation, Journal of Economic and Social Thought, 5(1), 9-28.
Coccia, M. (2018e). Theorem of not independence of any technological innovation, Journal of Economics Bibliography, 5(1), 29-35.
Coccia, M. (2018e). Theorem of not independence of any technological innovation, Journal of Social and Administrative Sciences, 5(1), 15-33.
Coccia, M. (2018f). Competition between basic and applied research in the organizational behaviour of public research labs, Journal of Economics Library, 5(2), 118-133.
Coccia, M. (2018g). An introduction to the methods od inquiry in social sciences, Journal of Social and Administrative Sciences, 5(2), xxx-xxx.
Coccia, M., & Bellitto, M. (2018). Human progress and its socioeconomic effects in society, Journal of Economic and Social Thought, 5(2), 160-178.
Coccia, M., & Igor, M. (2018). Rewards in public administration: a proposed classification, Journal of Social and Administrative Sciences, 5(2), 68-80.
Coccia, M., & Bozeman, B. (2016). Allometric models to measure and analyze the evolution of international research collaboration. Scientometrics, 108(3), 1065-1084. doi. 10.1007/s11192-016-2027-x
Coccia, M., Falavigna, G., & Manello, A. 2015. The impact of hybrid public and market-oriented financing mechanisms on scientific portfolio and performances of public research labs: a scientometric analysis. Scientometrics, 102(1), 151-168. doi. 10.1007/s11192-014-1427-z
Coccia, M., & Finardi, U. (2012). Emerging nanotechnological research for future pathway of biomedicine. International Journal of Biomedical Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 2 (3-4), 299-317. doi. 10.1504/IJBNN.2012.051223
Coccia, M., & Finardi, U. (2013). New technological trajectories of non-thermal plasma technology in medicine. International Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, 11(4), 337-356. doi. 10.1504/IJBET.2013.055665
Coccia, M., Finardi, U., & Margon, D. (2012). Current trends in nanotechnology research across worldwide geo-economic players, The Journal of Technology Transfer, 37(5), 777-787. doi. 10.1007/s10961-011-9219-6
Coccia, M., & Rolfo, S. (2000). Ricerca pubblica e trasferimento tecnologico: il caso della regione Piemonte. In S. Rolfo (ed), Innovazione e piccole imprese in Piemonte, Franco Angeli Editore, Milano.
Coccia, M., & Rolfo, S. (2002). Technology transfer analysis in the Italian national research council, Technovation - The International Journal of Technological Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 22(5), 291-299. doi. 10.1016/S0166-4972(01)00018-9
Coccia, M., & Rolfo, S. (2007). How research policy changes can affect the organization and productivity of public research institutes, Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis, Research and Practice, 9(3) 215-233. doi. 10.1080/13876980701494624
Coccia, M., & Rolfo, S. (2010). New entrepreneurial behaviour of public research organizations: opportunities and threats of technological services supply, International Journal of Services Technology and Management, 13(1-2), 134-151. doi. 10.1504/IJSTM.2010.029674
Coccia, M., & Rolfo, S. (2013). Human resource management and organizational behavior of public research institutions, International Journal of Public Administration, 36(4), 256-268. doi. 10.1080/01900692.2012.756889
Coccia, M., & Rolfo, S. (2009). Project management in public research organization: Strategic change in complex scenarios. International Journal of Project Organisation and Management, 1(3), 235–252. doi. 10.1504/IJPOM.2009.027537
Coccia, M., & Wang, L. (2015). Path-breaking directions of nanotechnology-based chemotherapy and molecular cancer therapy, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 94, 155–169. doi. 10.1016/j.techfore.2014.09.007
Coccia, M., & Wang, L. (2016). Evolution and convergence of the patterns of international scientific collaboration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 113(8), 2057-2061. doi. 10.1073/pnas.1510820113
Dai, T., Liu, X., & Xie, B. (2013). The impact of immigrants on host country crime, Economic Letters, 119(2), 157-161. 10.1016/j.econlet.2013.02.007
Ditton, J., Chadee, D., Farrall, S., Gilchrist, E., & Bannister, J. (2004). From imitation to intimidation A note on the curious and changing relationship between the media, crime and fear of crime. British Journal of Criminology, 44(4), 595-610. doi. 10.1093/bjc/azh028
EUROSTAT, (2019). Database. Accessed July, 2019. [Retrieved from].
Fanselow, M.S., & Lester, L.S. (1988). A functional behavioristic approach to aversively motivated behavior: predatory imminence as a determinant of the topography of defensive behavior. In R.C. Bolles & M.D. Beecher, (eds), Evolution and Learning. (pp.185-211), Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Farrall, S., Bannister, J., Ditton, J., & Gilchrist, E. (1997). Questioning the measurement of the fear of crime: Findings from a major methodological study. British Journal of Criminology, 37, 657-678. 10.1177/1356389004050216
Farrall, S., Bannister, J., Ditton, J., & Gilchrist, E. (2000). Social psychology and the fear of crime: Re-examining a speculative model. British Journal of Criminology, 40(1), 399-413.
Farrall, S., & Gadd, D. (2004). The frequency of the fear of crime. British Journal of Criminology, 44, 127-132. doi. 10.1093/bjc/44.1.127
Farrall, S., Jackson, J., & Gray, E. (2007). Theorising the fear of crime: The cultural and social significance of feelings of insecurity. Published on the Social Science Research Network. [Retrieved from].
Ferraro, K.F. (1995). Fear of Crime: Interpreting Victimization Risk, New York: SUNY Press.
Ferraro, K.F. (1996). Women’s fear of victimization: Shadow of sexual assault. Social Forces, 75(2), 667-690. doi. 10.1093/sf/75.2.667
Ferraro, K.F., & LaGrange, R.L. (1992). Are older people most afraid of crime? Reconsidering age differences in fear of victimization. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 47(5), 233-244. doi. 10.1093/geronj/47.5.s233
Garofalo, J. (1979). Victimization and the fear of crime. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 16(1), 80-97. doi. 10.1177/002242787901600107
Garofalo, J. (1981). The fear of crime: Causes and consequences. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 72, 839-857. doi. 10.2307/1143018
Garofalo, J., & Laub, J. (1979). The fear of crime: Broadening our perspective. Victimology, 3, 242-253.
Girling, E., Loader, I., & Sparks, R. (2000). Crime and Social Control in Middle England: Questions of Order in an English Town. London: Routledge.
Gore, A. (2004). The politics of fear. Social Research, 71(4), 779-798.
Hale, C. (1996). Fear of crime: A review of the literature. International Review of Victimology, 4(2), 79-150. doi. 10.1177/026975809600400201
Hope, T., & Sparks, R. (2000). Crime, Risk and Insecurity. Routledge, London.
Hough, M. (1995). Anxiety about crime: Findings from the 1994 British Crime Survey. Home Office Research Study, No.147.
Huddy, L. (2004). Fear and how it works: Science and the sciences. Social Research, 71(4), 801-805.
Innes, M. (2004). Signal crimes and signal disorders. British Journal of Sociology, 55(3), 335-355. doi. 10.1111/j.1468-4446.2004.00023.x
Jackson, J. (2006). Introducing fear of crime to risk research. Risk Analysis, 26(1), 253-264. doi. 10.1111/j.1539-6924.2006.00715.x
Jackson, J. (2009). A psychological perspective on vulnerability in the fear of crime. Psychology, Crime and Law, 15(4), 365-390. doi. 10.1080/10683160802275797
Killias, M. (1990). Vulnerability: Towards a better understanding of a key variable in the genesis of fear of crime. Violence and Victims, 5(2), 97-108.
LaGrange, R.L., Ferraro, K., & Supancic, M. (1992). Perceived risk and fear of crime. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 29(3), 311-334. doi. 10.1177/0022427892029003004
Lewis, D.A., & Maxfield, M.G. (1980). Fear in the neighborhoods: An investigation of the impact of crime. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 17(2), 160-189. doi. 10.1177/002242788001700203
Lewis, D.A., & Salem, G. (1986). Fear of Crime: Incivility and the Production of a Social Problem. Transaction Books.
Liska, A.E., Baccaglini, W. (1990). Feeling safe by comparison: Crime in the newspapers. Social Problems, 37(3), 306-374. doi. 10.2307/800748
Liska, A.E., Lawrence, J.J., & Sanchirico, A. (1982). Fear of crime as a social fact. Social Forces, 60(3), 760-770. doi. 10.2307/2578391
Liska, A.E., & Warner, B.D. (1991). Functions of crime: A paradoxical process. American Journal of Sociology, 96(6), 1441-1463. doi. 10.1086/229692
Maxfield, M. (1987). Explaining fear of crime: Evidence from the 1984 British Crime Survey. Paper No.43.
Ortega, S.T., & Myles, J.L. (1987). Race and gender effects on fear of crime: An interactive model with age. Criminology, 25(1), 33-52. doi. 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1987.tb00792.x
Panksepp, J. (1982). Toward a general psychobiological theory of emotions. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 5(3), 407-467. doi. 10.1017/S0140525X00012759
Panksepp, J. (1998). Affective Neuroscience, New York: Oxford University Press.
Pop, V. (2011). Barroso warns of extremism in immigration debate. EU Observer. Archived from the original on 10 January 2014.
Sacco, V.F., & Glackman, W. (1987). Vulnerability, locus of control and worry about crime. Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health, 6(1), 99-111. doi. 10.7870/cjcmh-1987-0007
Skogan, W. (1981). Issues in the Measurement of Victimisation, U. S. Department of Justice, Washington D. C., U. S. Government Printing Office.
Skogan, W.G., & Maxfield, M.G. (1981). Coping with Crime: Individual and Neighborhood Reactions. Sage.
Sparks, J.R. (1992). Reason and unreason in Left Realism: Some problems in the constitution of the fear of crime. In R. Matthews, & J. Young (Eds.), Issues in Realist Criminology (pp. 119-135). London: Sage.
Stafford, M.C., & Galle, O.R. (1984). Victimization rates, exposure to risk, and fear of crime. Criminology, 22(2), 173485. doi. 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1984.tb00295.x
Stafford, M., Chandola, T., & Marmot, M. (2007). Association between fear of crime and mental health and physical functioning. American Journal of Public Health, 97(11), 2076-2081. doi. 10.2105/AJPH.2006.097154
Stanko, E.A. (1995). Women, crime and fear. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 539(1), 46–58. doi. 10.1177/0002716295539001004
Taylor, I. (1996). Fear of crime, urban fortunes and suburban social movements: some reflections from Manchester. Sociology, 30(2), 317-337. doi. 10.1177/0038038596030002007
Taylor, R.B., Gotffredson, S.D., & Brower, S. (1984). Block crime and fear: Defensible space, local social ties, and territorial functioning. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 21(4), 303-331. doi. 10.1177/0022427884021004003
Taylor, R.B., & Hale, M. (1986). Testing alternative models of fear of crime. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 77(), 15149.
The World Bank, (2019). Population, total. Accessed July, 2019. [Retrieved from].
Tyler, T.R., & Cook, F.L. (1984). The mass media and judgements of risk: Distinguishing impact on personal and societal level judgement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47(4), 693-708. doi. 10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1683
UNODC, (2019). United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Accessed July, 2019.[Retrieved from].
van der Wurff A., van Staalduinen, L., & Stringer, P. (1989). Fear of crime in residential environments: Testing a social psychological model. The Journal of Social Psychology, 129(2), 141-160. doi. 10.1080/00224545.1989.9711716
Vanderveen, G. (2007). Interpreting Fear, Crime, Risk and Unsafety. Cullompton: Willan Publishing.
Vri, A., & Winkel, F.W. (1991). Characteristics of the built environment and fear of crime: A research note on interventions in unsafe locations. Deviant Behavior: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 12(2), 203-215. doi. 10.1080/01639625.1991.9967873
Walklate, S. (1998). Crime and community: Fear or trust? British Journal of Sociology, 49(4), 550-569. doi. 10.2307/591288
Warr, M. (1990). Dangerous situations: Social context and fear of victimization. Social Forces, 68(3), 891-907. doi. 10.1093/sf/68.3.891
Wikipedia (2019). Risultati elettorali della Lega Nord per regione italiana. Accessed July 2019. [Retrieved from].
Wilcox R.P., & Land, K.C. (1996). Perceived risk versus fear of crime: Empirical evidence of conceptually distinct reactions in survey data, Social Forces, 74(4), 1353-1376. doi. 10.1093/sf/74.4.1353Yin, P. (1985). Victimization and the Aged. Springfield, IL: Thomas.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Journal of Economics Bibliography - J. Econ. Bib. - JEB - www.kspjournals.org
Copyright © KSP Library