Agriculture or industry: Rice or garments: Ex-post and ex-ante analysis of Pakistan’s falling competitiveness in its main export items

Dawood MAMOON

Abstract


Abstract. The paper undertakes an evolutionary analysis of Pakistan’s national competitiveness with special reference to exports from 1950-2010. The analysis suggests that post 1980s trade liberalization, some visible improvements can be seen in production efficiencies in Pakistan but they were not translated into improved agriculture or industry competitiveness. The major export items like garments and rice have seen a steady decline in value over the years..

Keywords. Agriculture, Industry, International trade.

JEL. N50, O13, Q10, Q17.

Keywords


Agriculture; Industry; International trade.

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1453/jeb.v4i3.1438

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