How do environmental, demographic, and geographical factors influence the spread of Covid-19



Abstract. Italy was the first European country to experience a rapid increase in confirmed cases and deaths of the novel Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). This study explains how COVID-19 transmitted so rapidly in northern Italy, analysing the underlying relationships between infected people and environmental, demographic, and geographical factors that influenced its spread. This study analyses data on COVID-19 cases alongside environmental data. This study finds out that cities with little wind, high humidity and frequently high levels of air pollution — exceeding safe levels of ozone or particulate matter — had higher numbers of COVID-19 related infected individuals and deaths. Overall, then, results here suggest that that geo-environmental factors may have accelerated the spread of COVID-19 in northern Italian cities, leading to a higher number of infected individuals and deaths..

Keywords. Air pollution, Environment and health, Natural hazards, Risk assessment, Urban environment, Sustainable development and policy assessment, Sustainable Growth.

JEL. F64, I10, I18, I19,  H75, H84, Q50, Q51, Q52, Q53, Q55, Q58.


Air pollution; Environment and health; Natural hazards; Risk assessment; Urban environment; Sustainable development and policy assessment; Sustainable Growth.

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