Motivations of scientific research in society



Abstract. Science discovers the root causes of phenomena to explain and predict them in a context of adaptation of life to new economic and social bases, whereas scientific research is a systematic process, applying methods of scientific inquiry, to solve consequential problems, to satisfy human wants, to take advantage of important opportunities and/or to cope with environmental threats. This study shows that scientific research reflects social climate in which it is carried out and it is driven by social and economic interests of nations to achieve power, wealth creation, technological superiority, productivity growth, etc. A main implication of this study is scientific research is performed by nations to take advantage of important opportunities and/or to cope with environmental threats, such as in war. The empirical evidence seems in general to support the sources of scientific research described here. However, these conclusions are of course tentative. There is need for much more detailed theoretical and empirical research into the relations between science, society, economy and historical motivations.

Keywords. Science progress, Scientific research, Wealth creation, Historical motivations, Social power, Economic war potential, Scientific superiority, Technological superiority, Basic research, Economics of science, Science & technology, R&D investments, Labor productivity.

JEL. N30, O30, O31, I23.


Science progress; Scientific research; Wealth creation; Historical motivations; Social power; Economic war potential; Scientific superiority; Technological superiority; Basic research; Economics of science; Science & technology: R&D investments; Labor pro

Full Text:


Adams, J.D. (1990). Fundamental stocks of knowledge and productivity growth, Journal of Political Economy, 98(4), 673-702. doi. 10.1086/261702

Aghion, P., & Howitt, P. (1998). Endogenous Growth Theory, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Amendola, G., Dosi, G., & Papagni, E. (1993). The dynamics of international competitiveness, Review of World Economics, 129(3), 451-471. doi. 10.1007/BF02707997

Arrow, K. (1962). Economic welfare and the allocation of resources for invention. In R.R. Nelson (ed.), The Rate and Direction of Inventive Activity: Economic and Social Factors, (pp.609-625), Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Bacon, F. (1629). The great instauration and New Atlantis. In J. Weinberger (ed.), Science and Rule in Bacon’s Utopia: An Introduction to the Reading of the New Atlantis American Political Science Review, pp.865-885.

Basalla, G. (1988). The History of Technology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Bellitto, M., & Coccia, M. (2018). Interrelationships between Violent crime, demographic and socioeconomic factors: A preliminary analysis between Central-Northern European countries and Mediterranean countries, Journal of Economic and Social Thought, 5(3), 230-246.

Benati, I., & Coccia, M. (2017). General trends and causes of high compensation of government managers in the OECD countries. International Journal of Public Administration. 28(4), doi. 10.1080/01900692.2017.1318399

Benati, I., & Coccia M. (2018). Rewards in Bureaucracy and Politics. Global Encyclopedia of Public Administration, in A. Farazmand (Ed), Public Policy, and Governance – Section Bureaucracy, Springer. doi. 10.1007/978-3-319-31816-5_3417-1

Beszter, P.F. (2016). Public sector. In, A. Wilkinson & S. Johnstone (Eds), Encyclopedia of Human Bernal J.D. 1939. The Social Function of Science, MIT Press: Cambridge.

Blank, D.M., & Stigler, G.J. (1957). The Demand and Supply of Scientific Personnel, National Bureau of Economic Research, New York.

Brécard, D., Fougeyrollas A., Le Mouël P., Lemiale L., & Zagamé P. (2006). Macro-economic consequences of European research policy: prospects of Nemesis model in the year 2030, Research Policy, 25(7), 910-924.

Bush, V. (1945). Science: The Endless Frontier, Ayer Co, North Stratford.

Calabrese, G., Coccia, M., & Rolfo, S. (2005). Strategy and market management of new product development: evidence from Italian SMEs, International Journal of Product Development, 2(1-2), 170-189. doi. 10.1504/IJPD.2005.006675

Calcatelli, A., Coccia, M., Ferraris, K., & Tagliafico, I. (2003). Donne-scienza-tecnologia: analisi di un caso di studio. Working Paper Ceris del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, 5(7), 1591-0709.

Calcatelli, A., Coccia, M., Ferraris, K., & Tagliafico, I. (2003). Donne-scienza-tecnologia: analisi di un caso di studio. Working Paper Ceris del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, No.5/7.

Callon, M. (1994). Is science a public good? Fifth mullins lecture, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Science, Technology and Human Values, 19(4), 395-424. doi. 10.1177/016224399401900401

Cavallo, E., Ferrari, E., Bollani, L., & Coccia, M. (2014). Attitudes and behaviour of adopters of technological innovations in agricultural tractors: A case study in Italian agricultural system, Agricultural Systems, 130, 44-54. doi. 10.1016/j.agsy.2014.05.012

Cavallo, E., Ferrari, E., Bollani, L., & Coccia, M. (2014a). Strategic management implications for the adoption of technological innovations in agricultural tractor: the role of scale factors and environmental attitude, Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 26(7), 765-779. doi. 10.1080/09537325.2014.890706

Cavallo, E., Ferrari, E., & Coccia, M. (2015). Likely technological trajectories in agricultural tractors by analysing innovative attitudes of farmers, International Journal of Technology, Policy and Management, 15(2), 158–177. doi. 10.1504/IJTPM.2015.069203

Chagpar, A., & Coccia, M. (2012). Breast cancer and socio-economic factors. Working Paper of Public Health, n.7, Azienda Ospedaliera SS. Antonio e Biagio Arrigo, Alessandria, Italy.

Coccia, M. (2001). Satisfaction, work involvement and R&D performance. International Journal of Human Resources Development and Management, 1(2-3-4), 268-282. doi. 10.1504/IJHRDM.2001.001010

Coccia, M. (2003). Metrics of R&D performance and management of public research institute. Proceedings of IEEE- IEMC 03, Piscataway, pp.231-236.

Coccia, M. (2004). Spatial metrics of the technological transfer: analysis and strategic management. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 16(1), 31-52. doi. 10.1080/0953732032000175490

Coccia, M. (2005). Countrymetrics: valutazione della performance economica e tecnologica dei paesi e posizionamento dell’Italia, Rivista Internazionale di Scienze Sociali, CXIII(3), 377-412.

Coccia, M. (2005a). Metrics to measure the technology transfer absorption: analysis of the relationship between institutes and adopters in northern Italy. International Journal of Technology Transfer and Commercialization, 4(4), 462-486. doi. 10.1504/IJTTC.2005.006699

Coccia, M. (2005b). Technometrics: Origins, historical evolution and new direction, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 72(8), 944-979. doi. 10.1016/j.techfore.2005.05.011

Coccia, M. (2005c). Economics of scientific research: origins, nature and structure, Proceedings of Economic Society of Australia.

Coccia, M. (2006). Classifications of innovations: survey and future directions. Working Paper Ceris del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, 8(2), 1-19. [Retrieved from].

Coccia, M. (2006a). Analysis and classification of public research institutes. World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, 3(1), 1-16.

Coccia, M. (2007). A new taxonomy of country performance and risk based on economic and technological indicators, Journal of Applied Economics, 10(1), 29-42.

Coccia, M. (2008). Science, funding and economic growth: analysis and science policy implications. World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, 5(1), 1-27. doi. 10.1504/WRSTSD.2008.01781

Coccia, M. (2008a). Spatial mobility of knowledge transfer and absorptive capacity: analysis and measurement of the impact within the geoeconomic space. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 33(1), 105-122. doi. 10.1007/s10961-007-9032-4

Coccia, M. (2008b). New organizational behaviour of public research institutions: Lessons learned from Italian case study. International Journal of Business Innovation and Research, 2(4), 402–419. doi. 10.1504/IJBIR.2008.018589

Coccia, M. (2009). A new approach for measuring and analyzing patterns of regional economic growth: empirical analysis in Italy. Italian Journal of Regional Science- Scienze Regionali, 8(2), 71-95. doi. 10.3280/SCRE2009-002004

Coccia, M. (2009a). Measuring the impact of sustainable technological innovation, International Journal of Technology Intelligence and Planning, 5(3), 276-288. doi. 10.1504/IJTIP.2009.026749

Coccia, M. (2010). Public and private R&D investments as complementary inputs for productivity growth. International Journal of Technology, Policy and Management, 10(1/2), 73-91. doi. 10.1504/IJTPM.2010.032855

Coccia, M. (2010a). Foresight of technological determinants and primary energy resources of future economic long waves, International Journal of Foresight and Innovation Policy, 6(4), 225–232. doi. 10.1504/IJFIP.2010.037468

Coccia, M. (2010b). Energy metrics for driving competitiveness of countries: Energy weakness magnitude, GDP per barrel and barrels per capita. Energy Policy, 38(3), 1330-1339. doi. 10.1016/j.enpol.2009.11.011

Coccia, M. (2010c). Spatial patterns of technology transfer and measurement of its friction in the geo-economic space. International Journal of Technology Transfer and Commercialisation, 9(3), 255-267. doi. 10.1504/IJTTC.2010.030214

Coccia, M. (2010d). The asymmetric path of economic long waves, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 77(5), 730-738. doi. 10.1016/j.techfore.2010.02.003

Coccia, M. (2010e). Democratization is the driving force for technological and economic change, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 77(2), 248-264. doi. 10.1016/j.techfore.2009.06.007

Coccia, M. (2011). The interaction between public and private R&D expenditure and national productivity. Prometheus-Critical Studies in Innovation, 29(2), 121-130. doi. 10.1080/08109028.2011.601079

Coccia, M. (2012). Political economy of R&D to support the modern competitiveness of nations and determinants of economic optimization and inertia, Technovation, 32(6), 370–379. doi. 10.1016/j.technovation.2012.03.005

Coccia, M. (2012a). Evolutionary trajectories of the nanotechnology research across worldwide economic players. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 24(10), 1029-1050. doi. 10.1080/09537325.2012.705117

Coccia, M. (2012b). Evolutionary growth of knowledge in path-breaking targeted therapies for lung cancer: radical innovations and structure of the new technological paradigm. International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research, 3(3-4), 273-290. doi. 10.1504/IJBHR.2012.051406

Coccia, M. (2012c). Converging genetics, genomics and nanotechnologies for groundbreaking pathways in biomedicine and nanomedicine. International Journal of Healthcare Technology and Management, 13(4), 184-197. doi. 10.1504/IJHTM.2012.050616

Coccia, M. (2012d). Driving forces of technological change in medicine: Radical innovations induced by side effects and their impact on society and healthcare. Technology in Society, 34(4), 271-283. doi. 10.1016/j.techsoc.2012.06.002

Coccia, M. (2013). What are the likely interactions among innovation, government debt, and employment? Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research, 26(4), 456–471. doi. 10.1080/13511610.2013.863704

Coccia, M. (2013a). The effect of country wealth on incidence of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 141(2), 225-229. doi. 10.1007/s10549-013-2683-y

Coccia, M. (2014). Path-breaking target therapies for lung cancer and a far-sighted health policy to support clinical and cost effectiveness. Health Policy and Technology, 1(3), 74-82. doi. 10.1016/j.hlpt.2013.09.007

Coccia, M. (2014a). Emerging technological trajectories of tissue engineering and the critical directions in cartilage regenerative medicine. Int. J. Healthcare Technology and Management, 14(3), 194-208. doi. 10.1504/IJHTM.2014.064247

Coccia, M. (2014b). Converging scientific fields and new technological paradigms as main drivers of the division of scientific labour in drug discovery process: the effects on strategic management of the R&D corporate change. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 26(7), 733-749, doi. 10.1080/09537325.2014.882501

Coccia, M. (2014c). Driving forces of technological change: The relation between population growth and technological innovation-Analysis of the optimal interaction across countries, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 82(2), 52-65. doi. 10.1016/j.techfore.2013.06.001

Coccia, M. (2014). Socio-cultural origins of the patterns of technological innovation: What is the likely interaction among religious culture, religious plurality and innovation? Towards a theory of socio-cultural drivers of the patterns of technological innovation, Technology in Society, 36(1), 13-25. doi. 10.23760/2421-7158.2017.004

Coccia, M. (2014e). Religious culture, democratisation and patterns of technological innovation. International Journal of Sustainable Society, 6(4), 397-418. doi. 10.1504/IJSSOC.2014.066771

Coccia, M. (2014f). Structure and organisational behaviour of public research institutions under unstable growth of human resources, Int. J. Services Technology and Management, 20(4/5/6), 251–266. doi. 10.1504/IJSTM.2014.068857

Coccia, M. (2014g). Steel market and global trends of leading geo-economic players. International Journal of Trade and Global Markets, 7(1), 36-52, doi. 10.1504/IJTGM.2014.058714

Coccia, M. (2015). The Nexus between technological performances of countries and incidence of cancers in society. Technology in Society, 42, 61-70. doi. 10.1016/j.techsoc.2015.02.003

Coccia, M. (2015a). Patterns of innovative outputs across climate zones: the geography of innovation, Prometheus. Critical Studies in Innovation, 33(2), 165-186. doi. 10.1080/08109028.2015.1095979

Coccia, M. (2015b). General sources of general purpose technologies in complex societies: Theory of global leadership-driven innovation, warfare and human development, Technology in Society, 42, 199-226. doi. 10.1016/j.techsoc.2015.05.008

Coccia, M. (2015c). Spatial relation between geo-climate zones and technological outputs to explain the evolution of technology. Int. J. Transitions and Innovation Systems, 4(1-2), 5-21. doi. 10.1504/IJTIS.2015.074642

Coccia, M. (2015d). Technological paradigms and trajectories as determinants of the R&D corporate change in drug discovery industry. International Journal Knowledge and Learning, 10(1), 29-43. doi. 10.1504/IJKL.2015.071052

Coccia, M. (2016). Asymmetric paths of public debts and of general government deficits across countries within and outside the European monetary unification and economic policy of debt dissolution. The Journal of Economic Asymmetries, 15, 17-31. doi. 10.1016/j.jeca.2016.10.003

Coccia, M. (2016a). Radical innovations as drivers of breakthroughs: characteristics and properties of the management of technology leading to superior organizational performance in the discovery process of R&D labs. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 28(4), 381-395. doi. 10.1080/09537325.2015.1095287

Coccia, M. (2016). Problem-driven innovations in drug discovery: co-evolution of radical innovation with the evolution of problems, Health Policy and Technology, 5(2), 143-155. doi. 10.1016/j.hlpt.2016.02.003

Coccia, M. (2016c). The relation between price setting in markets and asymmetries of systems of measurement of goods. The Journal of Economic Asymmetries, 14(B), 168-178. doi. 10.1016/j.jeca.2016.06.001

Coccia, M. (2017). The source and nature of general purpose technologies for supporting next K-waves: Global leadership and the case study of the U.S. Navy's Mobile User Objective System, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 116, 331-339. doi. 10.1016/j.techfore.2016.05.019

Coccia, M. (2017a). Optimization in R&D intensity and tax on corporate profits for supporting labor productivity of nations. The Journal of Technology Transfer, doi. 10.1007/s10961-017-9572-1

Coccia, M. (2017b). Varieties of capitalism’s theory of innovation and a conceptual integration with leadership-oriented executives: the relation between typologies of executive, technological and socioeconomic performances. Int. J. Public Sector Performance Management, 3(2), 148–168. doi. 10.1504/IJPSPM.2017.084672

Coccia, M. (2017c). Sources of disruptive technologies for industrial change. L’industria –rivista di Economia e Politicaindustriale, 38(1), 97-120.

Coccia, M. (2017d). Sources of technological innovation: Radical and incremental innovation problem-driven to support competitive advantage of firms. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 29(9), 1048-1061. doi. 10.1080/09537325.2016.1268682

Coccia, M. (2017e). A Theory of general causes of violent crime: Homicides, income inequality and deficiencies of the heat hypothesis and of the model of CLASH, Aggression and Violent Behavior, 37, 190-200. doi. 10.1016/j.avb.2017.10.005

Coccia, M. (2017f). New directions in measurement of economic growth, development and under development, Journal of Economics and Political Economy, 4(4), 382-395.

Coccia, M. (2017g). Disruptive firms and industrial change, Journal of Economic and Social Thought, 4(4), 437-450.

Coccia, M. (2017h). The Fishbone diagram to identify, systematize and analyze the sources of general purpose Technologies, Journal of Social and Administrative Sciences, 4(4), 291-303.

Coccia, M. (2018). A theory of the general causes of long waves: War, general purpose technologies, and economic change. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 128, 287-295 10.1016/j.techfore.2017.11.013

Coccia, M. (2018a). The relation between terrorism and high population growth, Journal of Economics and Political Economy, 5(1), 84-104.

Coccia, M. (2018c). Violent crime driven by income Inequality between countries, Turkish Economic Review, 5(1), 33-55.

Coccia, M. (2018d). The origins of the economics of innovation, Journal of Economic and Social Thought, 5(1), 9-28.

Coccia, M. (2018e). Theorem of not independence of any technological innovation, Journal of Economics Bibliography, 5(1), 29-35.

Coccia, M. (2018e). Theorem of not independence of any technological innovation, Journal of Social and Administrative Sciences, 5(1), 15-33.

Coccia, M. (2018f). Classification of innovation considering technological interaction, Journal of Economics Bibliography, 5(2), 76-93.

Coccia, M. (2018g). An introduction to the methods od inquiry in social sciences, Journal of Social and Administrative Sciences, 5(2), 116-126.

Coccia, M. (2018h). Growth rate of population associated with high terrorism incidents in society, Journal of Economics Bibliography, 5(3), 142-158.

Coccia, M. (2018i). Measurement and assessment of the evolution of technology with a simple biological model, Turkish Economic Review, 5(3), 263-284.

Coccia, M. (2018j). Functionality development of product innovation: An empirical analysis of the technological trajectories of smartphone, Journal of Economics Library, 5(3), 241-258.

Coccia, M., & Bellitto, M. (2018). Human progress and its socioeconomic effects in society, Journal of Economic and Social Thought, 5(2), 160-178.

Coccia, M., & Igor, M. (2018). Rewards in public administration: a proposed classification, Journal of Social and Administrative Sciences, 5(2), 68-80.

Coccia, M., & Bozeman, B. (2016). Allometric models to measure and analyze the evolution of international research collaboration. Scientometrics, 108(3), 1065-1084. doi. 10.1007/s11192-016-2027-x

Coccia, M., & Cadario, E. (2014). Organisational (un)learning of public research labs in turbulent context, International Journal of Innovation and Learning, 15(2), 115-129. doi. 10.1504/IJIL.2014.059756

Coccia, M., Falavigna, G., & Manello, A. 2015. The impact of hybrid public and market-oriented financing mechanisms on scientific portfolio and performances of public research labs: a scientometric analysis. Scientometrics, 102(1), 151-168. doi. 10.1007/s11192-014-1427-z

Coccia, M., & Finardi, U. (2012). Emerging nanotechnological research for future pathway of biomedicine. International Journal of Biomedical Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 2 (3-4), 299-317. doi. 10.1504/IJBNN.2012.051223

Coccia, M., & Finardi, U. (2013). New technological trajectories of non-thermal plasma technology in medicine. International Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, 11(4), 337-356. doi. 10.1504/IJBET.2013.055665

Coccia, M., Finardi, U., & Margon, D. (2012). Current trends in nanotechnology research across worldwide geo-economic players, The Journal of Technology Transfer, 37(5), 777-787. doi. 10.1007/s10961-011-9219-6

Coccia, M., & Rolfo, S. (2000). Ricerca pubblica e trasferimento tecnologico: il caso della regione Piemonte. In S. Rolfo (ed), Innovazione e piccole imprese in Piemonte, Franco Angeli Editore, Milano.

Coccia, M., & Rolfo, S. (2002). Technology transfer analysis in the Italian national research council, Technovation - The International Journal of Technological Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 22(5), 291-299. doi. 10.1016/S0166-4972(01)00018-9

Coccia, M., & Rolfo, S. (2007). How research policy changes can affect the organization and productivity of public research institutes, Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis, Research and Practice, 9(3) 215-233. doi. 10.1080/13876980701494624

Coccia, M., & Rolfo, S. (2010). New entrepreneurial behaviour of public research organizations: opportunities and threats of technological services supply, International Journal of Services Technology and Management, 13(1-2), 134-151. doi. 10.1504/IJSTM.2010.029674

Coccia, M., & Rolfo, S. (2013). Human resource management and organizational behavior of public research institutions, International Journal of Public Administration, 36(4), 256-268. doi. 10.1080/01900692.2012.756889

Coccia, M., & Rolfo, S. (2009). Project management in public research organization: Strategic change in complex scenarios. International Journal of Project Organisation and Management, 1(3), 235–252. doi. 10.1504/IJPOM.2009.027537

Coccia, M., & Wang, L. (2015). Path-breaking directions of nanotechnology-based chemotherapy and molecular cancer therapy, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 94, 155–169. doi. 10.1016/j.techfore.2014.09.007

Coccia, M., & Wang, L. (2016). Evolution and convergence of the patterns of international scientific collaboration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 113(8), 2057-2061. doi. 10.1073/pnas.1510820113

Constant, E.W. (2000). The evolution of war and technology. In J. Zirman (Ed.), Technological Knowledge as an Evolutionary Process, (pp. 281-298), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Crowther, J.G. (1955). Discoveries and Inventions of the 20 Century, (4. ed. riv.), Routledge & Kegan Paul, London.

Dampier, W.C. (1953). Shorter History of Science, Macmillan Company Armed.

Dasgupta, P., & Maskin, E. (1987). The simple economics of research portfolios, Economic Journal, 97(387), 581-95. doi. 10.2307/2232925

David, P., Hall, B.H., & Toole, A. (2000). Is public R&D complement or a substitute for private R&D? A review of the economic evidence, Research Policy, 29(4-5), 497-529. doi. 10.1016/S0048-7333(99)00087-6

de Solla Price, D.J. (1963). Little Science, Big Science, Columbia University Press, New York.

de Solla Price, D.J. (1965). Is technology historically independent of science? A study in statistical historiography, Technology and Culture, 6(4), 553-568. doi. 10.2307/3101749

Diamond, A.M. (1986). The life-cycle research productivity of mathematicians and scientists, Journal of gerontology, 41(4), 520-525. doi. 10.1093/geronj/41.4.520

European Commission, (2003). Third European Report on Science & Technology Indicators, European Commission Studies.

European Commission, (2004). Facing the Challenge: The Lisbon Strategy for Growth and Employment: Report of the High Level Group chaired by Wim Kok, Brussels, European Commission.

European Commission, (2005). Communication: Implementing the Community Lisbon Programme: More Research and Innovation - Investing in Growth and Employment: A Common Approach, COM(2005) 488 final {SEC(2005)1253}, 12 October, Brussels, European Commission.

Eurostat, (2010). Database, [Retrieved from].

Ferguson, N. (2010). Complexity and collapse: empires on the edge of chaos. Foreign Affairs, 18–32.

Field, A.J. (2008). The impact of the Second World War on US productivity growth, Economic History Review, 61(3), 672-694. doi. 10.1111/j.1468-0289.2007.00404.x

Freedman, P. (1960). The Principles of Scientific Research, (First edition 1949), Pergamon Press.

Gibbons, M., & Johnston, R. (1974). The role of science in technological innovation, Research Policy, 3(3), 221-242. doi. 10.1453/jel.v5i1.1577

Godin, B. (2001). Defining Research: Is Research Always Systematic?, Project on the History and Sociology of S&T Statistics, No.5, OST: Montreal.

Goldfarb, B. (2005). Diffusion of general purpose technologies: understanding patterns in the electrification of US Manufacturing 1880–1930, Industrial and Corporate Change, 14, 745-773. doi. 10.1093/icc/dth068

Goldstein, J.S. (2003). War and economic history. In The Oxford Encyclopedia of economic history (ed. J. Mokyr), (pp.215-218), Oxford University Press.

Greenfeld, L. (2001). The Spirit of Capitalism: Nationalism and Economic Growth, Harvard University Press.

Griffith, R., Redding, S., & Van Reenen, J. (2004). Mapping the two faces of R&D: Productivity growth in a panel of OECD industries, Review of Economics and Statistics, 86(4), 883-895. doi. 10.1162/0034653043125194

Grossman, M., & Helpman, E. (1991). Innovation and Growth in the Global Economy, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts & London, England.

Guellec, D., & Van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie B. (2004). From R&D to productivity growth: Do the institutional setting and the sources of funds of R&D matter?, Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 66(3), 353-378. doi. 10.1111/j.1468-0084.2004.00083.x

Hall, B.H., & Mairesse, J. (1995). Exploring the relationship between R&D and productivity in French manufacturing firms, Journal Econometrics, 65(1), 263-293. doi. 10.1016/0304-4076(94)01604-X

Hull, D.L. (1988). Science as a Process.An Evolutionary Account of the Social and Conceptual Development of Science. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London

Jaffe, A.B. (1989). Real effects of academic research, American Economic Review, 79(5), 957–970.

Jaffe, A.B., & Trajtenberg, M. (2002). Patents, Citations and Innovations: a Window on the Knowledge Economy, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Kealey, T. (1996). The Economic Laws of Scientific Research, MacMillan Press, London.

Kira, R.F., & Mowery, D.C. (2007). The federal role in financing major innovations: Information technology during the postwar period. In Lamoreaux & Sokoloff (eds.), Financing Innovation in the United States, 1870 to the Present, (p.283-316), The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Kitcher, P. (2001). Science, Truth, and Democracy, Oxford University Press, New York.

Kramer, F.D., Starr, S.H., & Wentz, L.K. (2009). Cyberpower and National Security, National Defence University Press, Washington D. C.

Kuhn, T.S. (1962). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Chicago: the University of Chicago Press. 2nd enlarged ed.

Lakatos, I. (1968). Criticism and the methodology of scientific research programmes, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, New Series, 69(1), 149-186. doi. 10.1093/aristotelian/69.1.149

Larédo, P., & Mustar, P. (2004). Public sector research: A growing role in innovation systems, Minerva, 42(1), 11–27.

Laudel, G. (2006). The art of getting funded: How scientists adapt to their funding conditions, Science and Public Policy, 33(7), 489–504. doi. 10.3152/147154306781778777

Levy, D.M., & Terleckyj, N.E. (1983). Effects of government R&D on private R&D investment and productivity: a macroeconomic analysis, Bell Journal of Economics, 14(2), 551–561. doi. 10.2307/3003656

Levy, J.S. (2011). Theories and causes of war. In J.C. Coyne & R.L. Mathers (eds.), The Handbook on the Political Economy of War, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, Glos, UK.

Lichtenberg, F.R., & Siegel, D. (1991). The impact of R&D investment on productivity. New evidence using linked R&D-LRD data, Economic Inquiry, 29(2), 203-229. doi. 10.1111/j.1465-7295.1991.tb01267.x

Lucas, R.E. (1988). On the mechanisms of economic development, Journal of Monetary Economics, 22(1), 3-42. doi. 10.1016/0304-3932(88)90168-7

Mairesse, J., & Sassenou, M. (1991). R&D and productivity: a survey of econometric studies at the firm level, Science Technology and Industry Review, 8, 9-45.

Mansfield, E. (1995). Academic research underlying industrial innovations: sources, characteristics and financing, Review of Economics and Statistics, 77(1), 55-65. doi. 10.2307/2109992

Mendershausen, H. (1943). The Economics of War, Prentice-Hall Inc., New York.

Merton, R.K. (1957). Priorities in scientific discovery: A chapter in the sociology of science, American Sociological Review, 22(6), 635-659. doi. 10.2307/2089193

Merton, R.K. (1968). The Matthew effect in science, Science, 159, 56-63. doi. 10.1126/science.159.3810.56

Merton, R.K. (1972). The institutional imperatives of Science. In B.S. Barnes (ed.) The Sociology of Science, Penguin, Harmondsworth.

Modelski, G. (1972). Wars and the Great Power System. In L.L. Farrar (ed.), WAR: A Historical Political and Social Study, ABNC-CLIO, Santa Barbara, California.

Mowery, D.C. (2010). Military R&D and innovation. In B.H. Hall & N. Rosenberg (eds.) Handbook of the Economics of Innovation, Ch. 29, vol. 2, Elsevier.

Musselin, C. (2007). The transformation of academic work: Acts and analysis, center for studies in higher education, No.4, University of California, Berkeley. Center for Studies in Higher Education, No. 4, University of California, Berkeley.

Nelson, R. (2005). The Limits of Market Organization, Russel Sage.

Nelson, R.R., & Romer, P.M. (1996). Science, economic growth, and public policy, Challenge, 39(1), 9-21. doi. 10.1080/05775132.1996.11471873

Neurath, O. (1919). Durch die Kriegswirtschaft zur Naturalwirtschaft, Callwey, Munich.

OECD, (2003). The sources of Economic Growth in OECD Countries, Paris..

OECD, (2010). Labour Force Statistics and national sources Data extracted on 15 Nov 2010 10:40 UTC (GMT) from OECD.Stat. [Retrieved from].

Porter, M.E. (1985). Competitive Advantage, Free Press, MacMillan Inc., New York.

Porter, M.E. (1990). The Competitive Advantage of Nations, Billing & Sons Ltd, Worcester.

Rae, J. (1834). Statement of Some New Principles on the Subject of Political Economy, Exposing the Fallacies of the System of Free Trade, And of some other Doctrines maintained in the "Wealth of Nations", Boston: Hilliard, Gray. Reprinted (1964), New York: Kelley; and (1965), in R. W. James (ed.), John Rae, Political Economist, vol. 2, University of Toronto Press, Aylesbury, Toronto.

Robson, M. (1993). Federal funding and the level of private expenditure on basic research, Southern Economic Journal, 60(1), 63–71. doi. 10.2307/1059931

Rolfo, S., & Coccia, M. (2005). L'interazione fra ricerca pubblica e industria in Italia. L'industria, 26(4), 657-674 doi. 10.1430/21151

Romer, P.M. (1994). The origins of endogenous growth, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 8(1), 3-22. doi. 10.1257/jep.8.1.3

Room, G. (2005). The European Challenge: Innovation, Policy Learning and Social Cohesion in the New Knowledge Economy, The Policy Press, Bristol.

Rosenberg, N. (1974). Science, invention and economic growth, Economic Journal, 84(333), 90-108. doi. 10.2307/2230485

Rosenberg, N., & Birdzell, L.E. jr. (1990). Science, technology and Western miracle, Scientific American, 263(5), 42-54. doi. 10.1038/scientificamerican1190-42

Rothwell, R. (1994). Industrial innovation: success, strategy, trends. In M. Dodgson & R. Rothwell (Eds), The Handbook of Industrial Innovation, Edward Elgar.

Russell, B. (1952). The Impact of Science on Society, Allen & Unwin, London.

Ruttan, V.W. (2006). Is War Necessary For Economic Growth? Military Procurement and Technology Development, Oxford University Press, New York.

Schuetze, H. (2007). Research universities and the spectre of academic capitalism, Minerva, 45(4), 435–443.

SIPRI Military Expenditure Database, (2012). [Retrieved from].

Slaughter, S., & Leslie, L. (1997). Academic Capitalism: Politics, Policies, and the Entrepreneurial University, The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Smith, R.M. (1985). Military Enterprise and Technological Change, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Steil, B., Victor, D.G., & Nelson, R.R. (2002). Technological Innovation and Economic Performance, Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Stein, A.A., Russett B. M. 1980. Evaluating war: Outcomes and consequences. In T.R. Gurr (ed.) Handbook of Political Conflict: Theory and Research, (pp.399-422), The Free Press.

Stephan, P.E. (1996). The economics of science, Journal of Economic Literature, 34(3), 1199-1235.

Stephan, P.E., & Everhart, S.S. (1998). The changing rewards to science: The case of biotechnology, Small Business Economics, 10(2), 141-151. doi. 10.1023/A:1007929424290

Stephan, P.E., & Levin S.G. (1992). How science is done; Why science is done, in Striking the Mother Lode in Science: The Importance of Age, Place and Time, Chapter 2, Oxford University Press, New York.

Toole, A.A. (1999). The contribution of public science to industrial innovation: an application to the pharmaceutical industry, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research Working Paper, Stanford University, Stanford.

U.S. DoD, (2003). Base Structure Report, FY 2003 Baseline, U.S. Department of Defence.

U.S. DoD, (2012). Sustaining U.S. Global Leadership: Priorities for 21st Century Defense, Washington, D.C., January.

Usher, A.P. (1954). A History of Mechanical Inventions, Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

Volta, A. (1792). Memorie sull’elettricità animale inserite nel Giornale Fisico-Medico del sig. Brugnatelli, Baldassarre Comini, Pavia.

Wallsten, S.J. (1999). Do Government-Industry R&D Programs Increase Private R&D?: The Case of the Small Business Innovation Research Program. Department of Economics Working Paper, Stanford University.

Washburn, J. (2005). University Inc.: The Corporate Corruption of Higher Education, Basic Books.

Woods, E.B. (1907). Progress as a sociological concept. American Journal of Sociology, 12(6), 779-821.

World Bank, (2008). World Development Indicators on CD-ROM, The World Bank, Washington D.C.

Wright, G. (1997). Towards a more historical approach to technological change. The Economic Journal, 107, 1560-1566. doi. 10.1111/j.1468-0297.1997.tb00066.x

Zachariadis, M. (2004). R&D-induced growth in the OECD?, Review of Development Economics, 8(3), 423-439. doi. 10.1111/j.1467-9361.2004.00243.x

Zuckerman, H. (1992). The proliferation of prizes: Nobel complements and Nobel surrogates in the reward system of science, Theoretical Medicine, 13(2), 217-31. doi. 10.1007/BF02163629



  • There are currently no refbacks.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Journal of Social and Administrative Sciences - J. Adm. Soc. Sci. - JSAS -

ISSN: 2149-0406

Editor:   Secretarial:   Istanbul - Turkey.

Copyright © KSP Library