Rewards in public administration: A proposed classification

Mario COCCIA, Benati IGOR


Abstract. Social and administrative sciences categorize rewards with some dimensions. However, these interpretative models seem to be elusive because they do not consider all the elements of rewards system within public administration. The goal of this paper is to suggest a new classification considering formality, tangibility and also legality in order to create a comprehensive interpretative model in public sector. This theoretical framework begins the process of clarifying and generalizing, as far as possible, the manifold elements of rewards system in public administration to lay a foundation for the development of more sophisticated taxonomies and theories directed to fruitful management implications.

Keywords. Monetary rewards, Compensation, Salary, Seat of power, Pay, Bribe, Reputation, Abuse of power.

JEL. B29, L29, L30, L32, M12, M19, M50.


Monetary Rewards; Compensation; Salary; Seat of Power; Pay; Bribe; Reputation; Abuse of Power.

Full Text:


Aberbach, J.D., Putnam, R.D., & Rockman, B.A. (1981). Bureaucrats and Politicians in Western Democracies, Harvard University Press.

Andersen, L.B., & Pallesen, T. (2008). Not just for the money? How financial incentives affect the number of publications at Danish research institutions. International Public Management Journal, 11(1), 28-47. doi. 10.1080/10967490801887889

Armstrong, M. (2007). A Handbook of Employee Reward Management and Practice, 2nd ed., Kogan Page, Philadelphia.

Armstrong, M., & Murlis, H. (2004). Reward Management: A Handbook of Remuneration Strategy and Practice, 5th ed. London, Kogan Page.

Armstrong, M., & Stephens, T. (2005). A Handbook of Employee Reward Management and Practice. United Kingdom: Kogan Page Limited.

Belle, N., & Cantarelli, P. (2015). Monetary incentives, motivation, and job effort in the public sector an experimental study with Italian government executives. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 35(2), 99-123. doi. 10.1177/0734371X13520460

Bénabou, R., & Tirole, J. (2003). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, The Review of Economic Studies, 70(3), 489-520. doi. 10.1111/1467-937X.00253

Benati, I., & Coccia, M. (2017). General trends and causes of high compensation of government managers in the OECD countries. International Journal of Public Administration. 28(4), doi. 10.1080/01900692.2017.1318399

Benati, I., & Coccia M. (2018). Rewards in Bureaucracy and Politics. Global Encyclopedia of Public Administration, in A. Farazmand (Ed), Public Policy, and Governance – Section Bureaucracy, Springer. doi. 10.1007/978-3-319-31816-5_3417-1

Beszter, P.F. (2016). Public sector. In, A. Wilkinson & S. Johnstone (Eds), Encyclopedia of Human Resource Management. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham

Bowman, J.S. (2010). The success of failure: The paradox of performance pay. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 30(1), 70-88. doi. 10.1177/0734371X09351824

Brans, M., & Peters, B.G. (2012). Rewards for High Public Office in Europe and North America, Routledge, London.

Coccia, M. (2001). Satisfaction, work involvement and R&D performance. International Journal of Human Resources Development and Management, 1(2-3-4), 268-282. doi. 10.1504/IJHRDM.2001.001010

Coccia, M. (2006). Classifications of innovations: survey and future directions. Working Paper Ceris del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, 8(2), 1-19. [Retrieved from].

Coccia, M. (2006a). Analysis and classification of public research institutes. World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, 3(1), 1-16.

Coccia, M. (2008). Science, funding and economic growth: analysis and science policy implications. World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, 5(1), 1-27. doi. 10.1504/WRSTSD.2008.01781

Coccia, M. (2009a). Measuring the impact of sustainable technological innovation, International Journal of Technology Intelligence and Planning, 5(3), 276-288. doi. 10.1504/IJTIP.2009.026749

Coccia, M. (2013). What are the likely interactions among innovation, government debt, and employment? Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research, 26(4), 456–471. doi. 10.1080/13511610.2013.863704

Coccia, M. (2016). Radical innovations as drivers of breakthroughs: characteristics and properties of the management of technology leading to superior organizational performance in the discovery process of R&D labs. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 28(4), 381-395. doi. 10.1080/09537325.2015.1095287

Coccia, M. (2016a). The relation between price setting in markets and asymmetries of systems of measurement of goods. The Journal of Economic Asymmetries, 14(B), 168-178. doi. 10.1016/j.jeca.2016.06.001

Coccia, M. (2017). Varieties of capitalism’s theory of innovation and a conceptual integration with leadership-oriented executives: the relation between typologies of executive, technological and socioeconomic performances. Int. J. Public Sector Performance Management, 3(2), 148–168. doi. 10.1504/IJPSPM.2017.084672

Coccia M. 2017a. Asymmetric paths of public debts and of general government deficits across countries within and outside the European monetary unification and economic policy of debt dissolution. The Journal of Economic Asymmetries, 15, 17-31. doi. 10.1016/j.jeca.2016.10.003

Coccia, M. (2017b). New directions in measurement of economic growth, development and under development, Journal of Economics and Political Economy, 4(4), 382-395.

Coccia, M., & Bozeman, B. (2016). Allometric models to measure and analyze the evolution of international research collaboration. Scientometrics, 108(3), 1065-1084. doi. 10.1007/s11192-016-2027-x

Coccia, M., & Cadario, E. (2014). Organisational (un)learning of public research labs in turbulent context, International Journal of Innovation and Learning, 15(2), 115-129. doi. 10.1504/IJIL.2014.059756

Coccia, M., Falavigna, G., & Manello, A. 2015. The impact of hybrid public and market-oriented financing mechanisms on scientific portfolio and performances of public research labs: a scientometric analysis. Scientometrics, 102(1), 151-168. doi. 10.1007/s11192-014-1427-z

Coccia, M., & Rolfo, S. (2007). How research policy changes can affect the organization and productivity of public research institutes, Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis, Research and Practice, 9(3) 215-233. doi. 10.1080/13876980701494624

Coccia M., Rolfo S. 2008. Strategic change of public research units in their scientific activity, Technovation, 28(8), 485-494.

Coccia, M., & Rolfo, S. (2009). Project management in public research organization: Strategic change in complex scenarios. International Journal of Project Organisation and Management, 1(3), 235–252. doi. 10.1504/IJPOM.2009.027537

Coccia, M., & Rolfo, S. (2010). New entrepreneurial behaviour of public research organizations: opportunities and threats of technological services supply, International Journal of Services Technology and Management, 13(1-2), 134-151. doi. 10.1504/IJSTM.2010.029674

Coccia, M., & Rolfo, S. (2013). Human resource management and organizational behavior of public research institutions, International Journal of Public Administration, 36(4), 256-268. doi. 10.1080/01900692.2012.756889

Crewson, P.E. (1997). Public-service motivation: building empirical evidence of incidence and effect. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 7(4), 499-518. doi. 10.1093/oxfordjournals.jpart.a024363

Currall, S.C., Towler, A.J., Judge, T.A., & Kohn, L. (2005). Pay satisfaction and organizational outcomes. Personnel Psychology, 58, 613–640. doi. 10.1111/j.1744-6570.2005.00245.x

Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R.M. (1985). Intrinsic Motivation and Self-determination in Human Behavior. New York: Plenum.

Deci, E.L., Koestner, R., & Ryan, R. (1999). A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 125(6), 627-668. doi. 10.1037/0033-2909.125.6.627

Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R. (2000). The ‘‘what’’ and ‘‘why’’ of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 227–268. doi. 10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01

Doty, D.H., & Glick, W.H. (1994). Typologies as a unique form of theory building: toward improved understanding and modelling. Academy of Management Review, 19(2), 230-251. doi. 10.2307/258704

Francois, P. (2000). Public service motivation’ as an argument for government provision. Journal of Public Economics, 78(3), 275-299. doi. 10.1016/S0047-2727(00)00075-X

Frank, S.A., & Lewis, G. (2004). Government employees - Working hard or hardly working? American Review of Public Administration, 34(1), 36-51. doi. 10.1177/0275074003258823

Frey, B.S. (1993). Does monitoring increase work effort? The rivalry with trust and loyalty. Economic Inquiry, 31(4), 663–670. doi. 10.1111/j.1465-7295.1993.tb00897.x

Frey, B.S. (1997). Not Just for the Money: An Economic Theory of Personal Motivation. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

Frey, B.S., & Jegen, R. (2001). Motivation crowding theory: A survey of empirical evidence. Journal of Economic Surveys, 15(5), 589–611. doi. 10.1111/1467-6419.00150

Frey, B.S., & Oberholzer-Gee, F. (1997). The cost of price incentives: An empirical analysis of motivation crowding-out. American Economic Review, 87(4), 746–755.

Gardner, D.G., Van Dyne, L., & Pierce, J.L. (2004). The effects of pay level on organization-based self-esteem and performance: A field study. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77(3), 307–322. doi. 10.1348/0963179041752646

George, J.M. (1992). Extrinsic and intrinsic origins of perceived social loafing in organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 35(1), 191–202. doi. 10.2307/256478

Georgellis, Y., Iossa, E., & Tabvuma, V. (2011). Crowding out intrinsic motivation in the public sector. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 21(3), 473-493.

Gerhart, B., & Rynes, S.L. (2003). Compensation: Theory, Evidence, and Strategic Implications. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Gkorezis, P., & Panagiotis, E. (2008). Employees' psychological empowerment via intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. Academy of Health Care Management Journal. 4(1), 17–38.

Grant, A.M., & Shin, J. (2012). Work motivation: Directing, energizing, and maintaining effort (and research). In R.M. Ryan (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Human Motivation. New York: Oxford University Press.

Greenberg, J., & Wiethoff, C. (2001). Organizational justice as proaction and reaction: Implications for research and application. In R. Cropanzano (Ed.), Justice in the Workplace: From Theory to Practice (vol. 2, pp. 271–302). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Greenberg, J., & Ornstein, S. (1983). High status job title as compensation for underpayment: A test of equity theory. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68(2), 285–297. doi. 10.1037/0021-9010.68.2.285

Hartwig, R. (2004). A tiny ring of power: The department chair and golden rule management. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 10(1), 31–42.

Heneman, H.G., & Judge, T.A. (2000). Incentives and motivation. In S. Rynes & B. Gerhart (Eds.), Compensation in Organizations: Progress and Prospects (pp. 61–103). San Francisco, CA: New Lexington Press.

Hood, C., & Peters, B.G. (1994). Rewards at the Top: A Comparative Study of High Public Office, Sage, London.

Hood, C., Peters, B.G., & Lee, G. (2002). Reward for High Public Office: Asian and Pacific Rim States, Routledge, London.

Houston, D.J. (2006). “Walking the walk” of public service motivation: Public employees and charitable gifts of time, blood, and money. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 16(1), 67–86. doi. 10.1093/jopart/mui028

Judge, T.A., Piccolo, R.P., Podsakoff, N.P., Shaw, J.C., & Rich, B.L. (2010. The relationship between pay and job satisfaction: A meta-analysis of the literature. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 77(2), 157-167. doi. 10.1016/j.jvb.2010.04.002

Kernaghan, K. (2001). An honour to be coveted: pride, recognition and public service. Canadian Public Administration, 44(1), 67–83. doi. 10.1111/j.1754-7121.2001.tb02044.x

Kreps, D.M. (1997). Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic incentives. American Economic Review, 87(2), 359–364.

Kwon, I. (2012). Motivation, discretion, and corruption. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 24, 765–794. doi. 10.1093/jopart/mus062

Langbein, L. (2010). Economics, public service motivation, and pay for performance: Complements or substitutes? International Public Management Journal, 13(1), 9-23. doi. 10.1080/10967490903547134

Le Grand, J. (2006). Motivation, Agency, and Public Policy: Of Knights and Knaves, Pawns and Queens. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

Lehman, P., & Scott Geller E. (2004). Behavior analysis and environmental protection: Accomplishments and potential for more. Behavior and Social Issues, 13(1), 13–32. doi. 10.5210/bsi.v13i1.33

Lepper, M., & Greene, D. (1978). The Hidden Costs of Reward: New Perspectives on the Psychology of Human Motivation. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.

Lincoln, J., & Kalleberg, A. (1990). Culture, Control and Commitment: A Study of Work Organization and Work Attitudes in the United States and Japan, New York: Cambridge University Press.

Liu B.-C., Li-Ping & Tang, T. (2011). Does the love of money moderate the relationship between public service motivation and job satisfaction? The case of Chinese professionals in the public sector, Public Administration Review, 71(5), 718–727. doi. 10.1111/j.1540-6210.2011.02411.x

Luthans, F., & Kreitner R. (1985). Organizational Behavior Modification and Beyond: An Operant and Social Learning Approach. Scott Foresman, Glenview, IL.

McKelvey, B. (1982). Organizational Systematics: Taxonomy, Evolution and Classification, University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

Milkovich, G.M., & Newman, J.M. (2004). Compensation (8th ed.). Burr Ridge, IL: Irwin Mc Graw-Hill.

Mitchell, T.R. (1982). Motivation: new directions for theory, research, and practice. The Academy of Management Review. 7(1), 80-88. doi. 10.2307/257251

Motowidlo, S.J. (1983). Predicting sales turnover from pay satisfaction and expectation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68(3), 484- 489. doi. 10.1037/0021-9010.68.3.484

Mullins, L.J. (1999). Management and Organisational Behaviour, 5th edition, Pitman publishing, London.

O’Driscoll, M.P., & Randall, D.M. (1999). Perceived organisational support, satisfaction with rewards, and employee job involvement and organisational commitment, Applied Psychology: An International Review, 48(2), 197-209. doi. 10.1111/j.1464-0597.1999.tb00058.x

O’Reilly, C., Chatman, J., & Caldwell, D. (1991). People and organizational culture: A profile comparison approach to assessing person-organization fit. Academy of Management Journal, 34(3), 487-516. doi. 10.2307/256404

Perry, J.L., Hondeghem, A., & Wise, L.R. (2010). Revisiting the motivational bases of public service: twenty years of research and an agenda for the future. Public Administration Review, 70(5), 681–690. doi. 10.1111/j.1540-6210.2010.02196.x

Perry, J.L., & Porter, L.W. (1982). Factors affecting the context for motivation in public organizations. Academy of Management Review, 7(1), 89–98. doi. 10.1111/j.1559-1816.1996.tb00101.x

Perry, J.L., & Hondeghem, A. (2008). Editors introduction. In J.L. Perry, & A. Hogdenhem Motivation in Public Management: The Call of Public Service, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Plant, R. (1993). A Public Service Ethic and Political Accountability. Parliam Aff 56:560–579.

Rainey, H.G. (1982). Reward preferences among public and private managers: in search of the service ethic. American Review of Public Administration, 16(4), 288–302. doi. 10.1177/027507408201600402

Rainey, H.G., Backoff, R., & Levine, C.H. (1976). Comparing public and private organizations. Public Administration Review, 36(2), 233–244. doi. 10.2307/975145

Reif, W.E. (1975). Intrinsic versus extrinsic rewards: resolving the controversy. Human Resources Management, 14(2), 2-9.

Rich, P. (1992). The organizational taxonomy: Definition and design. Academy of Management Review, 17(4), 758-781. doi. 10.2307/258807

Ryan, R.M., & Deci, E.L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68-78. doi. 10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.68

Ryan, R.M., & Deci, E.L. (2000a). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1), 54-67. doi. 10.1006/ceps.1999.1020

Schuster, J, & Zingheim, P. (1992). The New Pay: Linking Employee and Organisational Performance. Lexington Books, New York

Simon, H.A. (1997). Administrative Behavior. A Study of Decision-Making Processes in Administrative Organizations. The Free Press, New York.

Staw, B.M. (1976). Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation. Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press.

Tekleab, A.G., Bartol, K.M., & Liu, W. (2005). Is it pay levels or pay raises that matter to fairness and turnover? Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(8), 899–921. doi. 10.1002/job.352

Titmuss, R.M. (1970). The Gift Relationship: From Human Blood to Social Policy. London: Allen and Unwin.

Trevor, C.O., Gerhart, B., & Boudreau, J.W. (1997). Voluntary turnover and job performance: Curvilinearity and the moderating influences of salary growth and promotions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(1), 44–61. doi. 10.1037/0021-9010.82.1.44

Vandenberghe, C., & Tremblay, M. (2008). The role of pay satisfaction and organizational commitment in turnover intentions: A two-sample study, Journal of Bus Psychol., 22, 275–286. doi. 10.1007/s10869-008-9063-3

Weibel, A., Rost, K., & Osterloh, M. (2010). Pay for performance in the public sector–benefits and (hidden) costs. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 20(2), 387-412. doi. 10.1093/jopart/mup009

White, G. (2016). Reward management. In A. Farazmand (ed), Global Encyclopedia of Public Administration, Public Policy, and Governance Springer International Publishing Switzerland. doi. 10.1007/978-3-319-31816-5_2543-1

Wittmer, D. (1991). Serving the people or serving for pay: Reward preferences among government, hybrid sector and business managers. Public Productivity and Management Review, 14(4), 369–383. doi. 10.2307/3380953

Wright, B.E. (2007). Public service and motivation: does mission matter? Public Administration Review, 67(1), 54-64. doi. 10.1111/j.1540-6210.2006.00696.x



  • There are currently no refbacks.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Journal of Social and Administrative Sciences - J. Adm. Soc. Sci. - JSAS -

ISSN: 2149-0406

Editor:   Secretarial:   Istanbul - Turkey.

Copyright © KSP Library