Differences in wealth, education, and history

James E. CURTIS Jr.


Abstract. An understanding of the freedoms (or the lack of freedoms) and their economic consequences on early black Americans provides an informative understanding to the freedoms (or the lack of freedoms), and their economic consequences on other, modern ethnic groups. Curtis (2017) investigates the link between the social asymmetry and economic asymmetry among early blacks and whites in the United States of America. For the empirical study,  Curtis (2017) uses cross-sectional variables from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Sample (IPUMS), developed informative conditional ratios, and employed least squares statistical analyses. This study finds that economic differences among ethnic groups, as measured by differences between early blacks and whites, are intertwined with asymmetrical freedoms, leading to statistically insignificant returns to education, as measured by literacy. One might conclude that the individual’s basic protection of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness must proceed any expectations of measured returns to schooling, particularly among individuals in disenfranchised groups. Furthermore, one might propose education policy such that modern higher education investment programs prioritize education entrepreneurs and/or state/social planners with academic research familiarity of differences in wealth.

Keywords. Wealth, education.

JEL. D31, E21, N30.


Wealth; education.

Full Text:


Attack, J., & Bateman, F. (1981). Egalitarianism, inequality, and age: The rural north in 1860, Journal of Economic History, 41(1), 85-93. doi. 10.1017/S0022050700042807

Becker, G.S. (1957). The Economics of Discrimination, Chicago: Chicago, 1957.

Berlin, I. (1974). Slaves Without Masters: The Free Negro in the Antebellum South, New York: Pantheon.

Birkes, D., & Dodge, Y. (1993). Alternative Methods of Regression, New York: John Wiley.

Bodenhorn, H. (1999). The economic consequences of color among free negroes in rural antebellum south, Working Paper, Lafayette College.

Bodenhorn, H. (1999). The mulatto advantage: The biological consequences of complexion in rural antebellum Virginia, Working Paper, Lafayette College, June.

Buchinsky, M. (1998). Recent advances in quantile regression models: A practical guide for empirical research, Journal of Human Resources, 33(1), 88-126. doi. 10.2307/146316

Coelho, P.R., & Shepherd, C.F. (1974). Differences in regional prices: The United States, 1851-1880, Journal of Economic History, 34(3), 551-591. doi. 10.1017/S0022050700079808

Conley, D. (1999). Being Black, Living in the Red: Race Wealth, and Social Policy in America, Berkeley: University of California.

Conley, T., & Galenson, D. (1994). Quantile regression analysis of censored wealth data, Historical Methods, 27(4), 149-165. doi. 10.1080/01615440.1994.10594230

Conley, T.G., Galenson, D., & Herscovici, S. (1995). Economic opportunity in urban America: Region, nativity and wealth in the mid-nineteenth century, Working Paper.

Cramer, C.E. (1997). Black Demographic Data, 1790-1860: A Sourcebook, Westport: Greenwood.

Curry, L. (1981). The Free Black in Urban America, 1800-1850: The Shadow of the Dream, Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Curtis, Jr, J.E. (2017). A theory of wealth accumulation considering modern net savings gradualism the impact of unresolved long run differences in wealth accumulation on the annualized net savings in the USA. Journal of Economics Bibliography, 4(4), 373-378.

Curtis, Jr, J.E. (2017). Designing JECJEF University, Working Paper. July 31.

Curtis, Jr, J.E. (2017). Economics, a student textbook and professor Manual for university instruction of microeconomics courses, 3rd Edition, Working Paper, July 31.

Curtis, Jr, J.E. (2012). Freedom laws and economics of ethnicity, Working Paper, No.1701423.

Curtis, Jr, J.E. (2002). Long-run differences in wealth: A microdata analysis of US White-Black differences in wealth directly after mass emancipation of Southern Slaves, Working Paper, No.1701373.

Curtis, Jr, J.E. (2013). The enduring faith center, a chronological memior of a church formed by J.E. Curtis Jr, Working Paper, December 31.

Curtis, Jr, J.E. (2011). Wealth and faith, what is your real reason? Is it Jesus?, Working Paper, No.1793848.

Curtis, Jr, J.E. (2011). Wealth discrimination theory, Working Paper, No.1751670.

Decanio, S.J. (1979). Accumulation and discrimination in the post-bellum south, exploration, Economic History, 16(2), 182-206.

DuBois, W.E.B. (1899). The Philadelphia Negro: A Social Study, New York: Schocken.

Easterlin, R.A. (1961). Regional Income Trends, 1840-1950, American Economic History, New York: McGraw-Hill.

Easterlin, R.A. (1968). Population, Labor Force, and Long Swings in Economic Growth: The American Experience, NBER Working Paper.

Eblen, J.E. (1972). Growth of the black population in ante bellum America, 1820-1860, Population Studies, 26(2), 273-289. doi. 10.1080/00324728.1972.10405550

Eggert, G. (2008). Two-steps forward, a step and a half back: Harrisburg's African American community in the nineteenth century, in J. Trooter Jr (Ed), African Americans in Pennsylvania: Shifting Historical Perspectives, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University.

Ferrie, J.P. (1994). The wealth accumulation of antebellum European immigrants to the U.S., 1840-60, Journal of Economic History, 54(1), 1-33. doi. 10.1017/S0022050700013978

Ferrie, J.P. (1996). A new sample of males linked from the public use microdata sample of the 1850 U.S. federal census of population to the U.S. federal census manuscript schedules, Historical Methods, 29(4), 141- 156. doi. 10.1080/01615440.1996.10112735

Ferrie, J.P. (1999). Yankeys Now: Immigrants in the Antebellum United States, 1840-1860, New York: Oxford.

Franklin, J.H. (1943). The Free Negro in North Carolina, 1790-1860, New York: Russell.

Galenson, D.W. (1991). Economic opportunity on the urban frontier: Nativity, work and wealth in early Chicago, Journal of Economic History, 51, 581-603. doi. 10.1017/S0022050700039577

Galenson, D.W., & Pope, C.L. (1989). Economic and geographic mobility on the farming frontier: Evidence from appanoose county, Iowa, 1850-1870, Journal of Economic History, 49, 635-655. doi. 10.1017/S0022050700008792

Greaves, I.C. (****). The Negro in Canada, Montreal: Packet-Times Press.

Greene, L.J., & Woodson, C.G. (1930). The Negro Wage Earner, Washington: Association for the Study.

Greene, W. (1997). Econometric Analysis, New Jersey: Princeton Hall.

Hamburg, M. (1989). Statistical Analysis for Decision Making, San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanvich.

Herscovici, S. (1995). Migration and economic mobility: Wealth accumulation and occupational change among antebellum migrants and non-migrants, Working Paper, October.

Higgs, R. (1982). Accumulation of property by Southern Blacks Before World War I, American Economic Review, 72(4), 725-737.

Hornsby, A. (1989). The accumulation of wealth by black Georgians, 1890-1915, Journal of Negro History, 74(1), 11-30. doi. 10.1086/JNHv74n1-4p11

Hurst, E., (1998). The wealth dynamics of American families, 1884-94, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 1, 267-337.

Jackson, L.P. (1939). The Virginia free negro farmer and property owner, Journal of Negro History, 24(4), 390-439. doi. 10.2307/2714362

Juhn, C., (1991). Accounting for the slowdown in black-white wage convergence, in H.M. Kosters (ed.), Workers and Their Wages, DC: American Enterprise Institute.

Koenker, R., & Basset, Jr. G. (1978). Regression quantiles, Econometrica, 46(1), 33-50. doi. 10.2307/1913643

Landon, F. (1920). The negro migration to Canada after passing the fugitive slave act, Journal of Negro History, 5(1), 22-36. doi. 10.2307/2713499

Litwick, L.F. (1958). The federal government and the free negro, 1790-1860, Journal of Negro History, 43(4), 261-278. doi. 10.2307/2716144

Litwick, L. (1961). North of Slavery: The Negor in the Free State, 1790-1860, Chicago: University of Chicago.

Magnuson, D.L. (1940). The Making of a Modern Census: The United States Census of Population, 1790-1940, University of Minnesota, Doctoral Dissertation.

Magnuson, D.L. (1995). Who and what determined the content of the U.S. population schedule over time, Historical Methods, 28(1), 11-26. doi. 10.1080/01615440.1995.9955309

Magnuson, D.L. & King, M.L. (1995). Comparability of the public use of microdata samples: Enumeration procedures, Historical Methods, 28(1), 27-32. doi. 10.1080/01615440.1995.9955310

Margo, R. (1984). Accumulation of property by southern blacks before World War I: Comment and further evidence, American Economic Review, 74(4), 768-774.

Margo, R.R. (1990). Schooling in the South: 1880-1915, An Economic History, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

McKee, J.W. (1934). The conflict between state laws prohibiting the entrance of free negroes and the privleges and immunities clause of the federal constitution in the period, 1789-1860, The Ohio State University, Doctoral Dissertation.

McPherson, J.H.T. (1891). History of Liberia, Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.

Mechlinger, L.R. (1916). The attitude of the free negro toward colonization, Journal of Negro History, 1(3), 276-301. doi. 10.2307/3035624

Miller, K. (1922). Enumeration errors in the negro population, Scientific Monthly, 14, 168-177.

Mincer, J. (1958). Investments in human capital and personal income distribution, Journal of Political Economy, 66, 281-302. doi. 10.1086/258055

Mincer, J. (1974). Schooling, Experience, and Earnings. New York: Columbia University.

Pennsylvania Abolition Society, (1838). The Present State and Condition of the People of Color of the City of Philadelphia and Adjoining Districts, Philadelphia.

Pope, C.L. (1989). Households on the American frontier: The distribution of income and wealth in Utah, 1850-1900, D.W. Galenson (Ed), Markets in History: Economic Studies of the Past, Cambridge: Cambridge.

Provine, D. (1973). The economic position of the free clacks in the district of Columbia, 1800-1860, Journal of Negro History, 58(1), 61-72. doi. 10.2307/2717156

Ruggles, S., & Sobek, M. (1997). Integrated Public Use Microdata Series: Version 2.0, Minneapolis: Historical Census Projects, University of Minnesota.

Ruggles, S., & Menard, R.R. (1995). The Minnesota historical census projects, Historical Methods, 28(1), 6-10. doi. 10.1080/01615440.1995.9955308

Ruggles, S. (1995). General design of the integrated public use microdata series, Historical Methods, 28(1), 31-39. doi. 10.1080/01615440.1995.9955311

Schaefer, D.F. (1987). A model of migration and wealth accumulation: Farmers at the antebellum southern frontier, Explorations in Economic History, 24(3), 130-157. doi. 10.1016/0014-4983(87)90009-X

Shorrocks, A.F. (1978). The measurement of mobility, Econometrica, 46(5), 1013-1024. doi. 10.2307/1911433

Snyder, D.C. (1989). A database with income and assets of new retirees by race and hispanic origin, Review of Black Political Economy, 71(4), 5-25.

Society of Friends, (1849). Statistical Inquiry into the Condition of the Free People of the City and Districts of Philadelphia, Philadelphia.

Soltow, L. (1972). A century of personal wealth accumulation, in H.G. Vatter & T. Palm (ed), The Economics of Black America, (pp.80-84), New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Soltow, L. (1975). Men & Wealth in the United States. New Haven: Yale.

Spriggs, W.E. (1984). Afro-American wealth accumulation, Virginia, 1900-1914, University of Wisconsin at Madison, Ph.D. Dissertation.

Steckel, R.H. (1988). Census matching and migration: A research strategy, Historical Methods, 21(2), 52-60. doi. 10.1080/01615440.1988.9955280

Steckel, R.H. (1990). Poverty and prosperity: A longitudinal study of wealth accumulation, 1850-1860, The Review of Economics and Statistics, 72(2), 275-285. doi. 10.2307/2109717

Steckel, R.H. (1995). Stature and standards of living, Journal of Economic Literature, 33(4), 1903-1940.

Steckel, R.H. (1991). The quality of census data for historical inquiry: A research agenda, Social Science History, 15(4), 579-599. doi. 10.1017/S0145553200021313

Steckel, R.H., Moehling, C. (2000). Wealth inequality in industrializing New England: New evidence and tests of competing hypothesis, Journal of Economic History, doi. 10.3386/h0122

Steckel, R. (1994). Census manuscript Schedules Matched with property tax lists: A source of information on long-term trends in wealth inequality, Historical Methods, 27(2), 71-85. doi. 10.1080/01615440.1994.10594225

Steckel, R. (1989). Household migration and rural settlement in the United States, 1850-1860, Explorations in Economic History, 26(2), 190-218. doi. 10.1016/0014-4983(89)90010-7

Steckel, R. (2000). The African American population of the United States, 1790-1920, A Population History of North America..

The Christian Life (1982). New Testament, Master Outlines and Study Notes, New King James Version, Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

Thünen, J.H. (1966). Isolated state; An English edition of der isolierte staat. Translated by C.M. Wartenberg. Oxford, New York, Pergamon Press.

US Bureau of the Census, (1918). Negro Population, 1790-1915, Washington: Government Printing Office.

US Census Office, (1864). The Eighth Census of the United States: 1860, Washington: Government Printing Office.

US Census Office, (1853). The Seventh Census of the United States: 1850, Washington: Robert Armstrong.

Weiss, T. (1992). U.S. labor force estimates and economic growth, 1800-1860, in R.E. Gallman and J. Wallis (Eds), American Economic Growth and Standards of Living Before the Civil War, (pp.19-78), Chicago: University of Chicago.

Wikimedia Foundation, (2004). The Free Encyclopedia, Encyclopedia on-line.

White, B.B. (1978). Empirical tests of the life cycle hypothesis, American Economic Review, 68(4), 547-560.

Wilkie, J.R. (1976). Distribution of the US population by race and urban-rural residence, 1790-1860: Reference tables, Demography, 13(3), 139-148.

Wilkie, J.R. (1976). Urbanization and de-urbanization of the black population before the civil war, Demography, 13(3), 311-328.

Wolff, E.N. (1981). Life-cycle: A microdata analysis, Income and Wealth, 27(1), 75-91. doi. 10.1111/j.1475-4991.1981.tb00193.x

Wolff, E. (1992). Changing inequality of wealth, American Economic Review: Papers and Proceedings of the One Hundred and Fourth Annual Meeting of the American Economic Association, 82(2), 552-558. doi. 10.1257/aer.p20161036

Wolff, E. (1998). Recent trends in the size distribution of household wealth, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 12(3), 131-150. doi. 10.1257/jep.12.3.131

Woodson, C.G. (1925). Free Negro Heads of Families in the Unites in 1830, Washington: Association for the Study of Negro Life and History.

Woodson, C.G. (1924). Free Negro Owners of Slaves in the United States in 1830, New York: Negro Universities.

Woodson, C.G. (1968). The Education of the Negro Prior to 1861, New York: Arno.

Woolfolk, G.R. (1976). The Free Negro in Texas 1800-1860: A Study of Cultural Compromise, Michigan: University Microfilms International, 1976.

Wright, C.D. (1900). The History and Growth of the United States Census, Washington: Government Printing Office.

Zelinsky, W. (1949). The historical geography of the negro population of Latin America, Journal of Negro History, 34(2), 153-221. doi. 10.2307/2715432

Zelinsky, W. (1950). The population geography of the free negro in antebellum America, Population Studies, 3(4), 386-401.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1453/jsas.v4i4.1512


  • There are currently no refbacks.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Journal of Social and Administrative Sciences - J. Adm. Soc. Sci. - JSAS - www.kspjournals.org

ISSN: 2149-0406

Editor: editor-jsas@kspjournals.org   Secretarial: secretarial@kspjournals.org   Istanbul - Turkey.

Copyright © KSP Library