The Antecedents and Consequences of Word of Mouth: A Meta-Analysis

Chen-Hung TSAI, Chin-Chiung KUO, Marianne J.E. TAN


Abstract. Word of Mouth (WOM) has been an important issue in Marketing research. This paper adopted Meta-analysis method to make quantitative review for the antecedents and consequences of WOM. The results facilitate scholarship in this academic area by clarify the cause-effect linkages when researching on WOM. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed.

Keywords. Word of mouth, Meta-analysis, Cause-effect clarification.

JEL. M10, L33, L52.


Word of mouth; Meta-analysis; Cause-effect clarification.

Full Text:


Allsop, D.T., Bassett, B.R., & Hoskins, J.A. (2007). Word-of-mouth research: Principles and applications. Journal of Advertising Research, 47(4), 598-411. doi. 10.2501/S0021849907070419

Amblee, N., & Bui, T. (2011-12). Harnessing the influence of social proof in online shopping: The effect of electronic word of mouth on sales of digital microproducts. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 16(2), 91-113.

Awaad, N.F., & Ragowsky, A. (2008). Establishing trust in electronic commerce through online word of mouth: An examination across genders. Journal of Management Information Systems, 24(4), 101-121.

Berger, J., & Schwartz, E.M. (2011). What drives immediate and ongoing word of mouth. Journal of Marketing Research, 48(5), 869-880. doi. 10.1509/jmkr.48.5.869

Bickart, B., & Schindler, R.M. (2001). Internet forums as influential sources of consumer information. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 15(3), 31–40. doi. 10.1002/dir.1014

Blodgett, J.G., Grandbois, D.H., & Walters, R.G. (1993). The effects of perceived justice on complaints' negative word-of-mouth behavior and repatronage intentions. Journal of Retailing, 69(4), 399-428. doi. 10.1016/0022-4359(93)90015-B

Bone, P.F. (1995). Word-of-mouth effects on short-term and long-term product judgements. Journal of Business Research, 32(3), 213-223. doi. 10.1016/0148-2963(94)00047-I

Brown, J.J., & Reingen, P.H. (1987). Social ties and word-of-mouth referral behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 14(3), 350-362. doi. 10.1086/209118

Brown, J., Broderick, A.J., & Lee, N. (2007). Word of mouth communication within online communities: Conceptualizing the online social network. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 21(3), 1-20. doi. 10.1002/dir.20082

Brown, T.J., Barry, T.E., Dacin, P.A., & Gunst, R.F. (2005). Spreading the word: Investigating antecedents of consumers' positive word-of-mouth intentions and behaviors in a retailing context. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 33(2), 123-138. doi. 10.1177/0092070304268417

Casielles, R.V., Alvarez, L.S., & Lanza, A.D. (2013). The word of mouth dynamic: How positive (and negative) WOM drives purchase probability an analysis of interpersonal and non-interpersonal factors. Journal of Advertising Research, 53(1), 43-60. doi. 10.2501/JAR-53-1-043-060

Chen, Z., & Lurie, N.H. (2013). Temporal contiguity and negativity bias in the impact of online Word of mouth. Journal of Marketing Research, 50(4), 463-476. doi. 10.1509/jmr.12.0063

Cheung, M., Luo, C., Sia, C., & Chen, H. (2009). Credibility of electronic word-of-mouth: Informational and normative determinants of on-line consumer recommendations. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 13(4), 9-38. doi. 10.2753/JEC1086-4415130402

Cheung, R. (2014). The influence of electronic word of mouth on information adoption in online customer communities. Global Economic Review, 43(1), 42-57. doi. 10.1080/1226508X.2014.884048

Chih, W.-H., Wang, K.-Y., Hsu, L.-C., & Huang, S.-C. (2013). Investigating electronic word-of-mouth effects on online discussion forums: The role of perceived positive electronic word-of-mouth review credibility. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 16(9), 658-668. doi. 10.1089/cyber.2012.0364

de Matos, C., & Rossi, C.V. (2008). Word-of-mouth communications in marketing: a meta-analytic review of the antecedents and moerators. Journal of the Academic Marketing Science, 36, 578-596. doi. 10.1007/s11747-008-0121-1

Doh, S.-J., & Hwang, J.-S. (2009). How consumers evaluate eWOM (electronic word-of-mouth) messages. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 12(2), 193-197. doi. 10.1089/cpb.2008.0109

Duhan, D.F., Johnson, S.D., Wilcox, J.B., & Harrell, G.D. (1997). Influences on consumer use of word-of-mouth recommendation sources. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 25, 283-295. doi. 10.1177/0092070397254001

Engel, J.F., Kegerreis, R.J., & Blackwell, R.D. (1969). Word of mouth communication by the innovator. Journal of Marketing, 33(3), 15-19. doi. 10.2307/1248475

Fang, Y.-H. (2014). Beyond the credibility of electronic word of mouth: Exploring eWOM adoption on social networking sites from affective and curiosity perspectives. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 18(3), 67-101.

Gatautis, R., Kazekeviciute, A., & Tarutis, M. (2014). Controllable factors impact on consumer online behaviour. Economics and Management, 19(1), 63-71. doi. 10.5755/j01.em.19.1.5692

Gatignon, H., & Robertson, T.S., (1989). Technology diffusion: An empirical test of competitive effects. Journal of Marketing, 53(1), 35-49. doi. 10.2307/1251523

Hajli, N., Lin, X., Featherman, M., & Wang, Y. (2013). Social word of mouth. International Journal of Market Research, 56(5), 673-689. doi. 10.2501/IJMR-2014-043

Hennig-Thurau, T., & Walsh, G. (2003). Electronic word-of-mouth: Motives for and consequences of reading customer articulations on the internet. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 8(2), 51-74.

Hong, S., & Yang, S.-U. (2009). Effects of reputation, relational satisfaction, and customer–company identification on positive word-of-mouth intentions. Journal of Public Relations Research, 21(4), 381-403. doi. 10.1080/10627260902966433

Hwang, J., Lee, B., & Kim, K. (2014). Information asymmetry, social networking site word of mouth, and mobility effects on social commerce in Korea. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social networkin, 17(2), 117-124. doi. 10.1089/cyber.2012.0566

Kawakami, T., & Parry, M.E. (2013). The impact of word of mouth sources on the perceived usefulness of an innovation. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 30(6), 1112-1127. doi. 10.1111/jpim.12049

Kawakami, T., Kishiya, K., & Parry, M.E. (2012). Personal word of mouth, virtual word of mouth, and innovation use. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 29(6), 952-966. doi. 10.1111/j.1540-5885.2012.00983.x

Keller, E. (2007). Unleashing the power of word of mouth: Creating brand advocacy to drive growth. Journal of Advertising Research, 47(4), 448-452). doi. 10.2501/S0021849907070468

Kozinets, R.V., de Valck, K., Wojnicki, A.C., & Wilner, S.J. (2010). Networked narratives: understanding word-of-mouth marketing in online communities. Journal of Marketing, 74(2), 71-89. doi. 10.1509/jmkg.74.2.71

Ladhari, R. (2007). The effect of consumption emotions on satisfaction and word-of-mouth communications . Psychology & Marketing, 24(12), 1085-1108. doi. 10.1002/mar.20195

Lam, D., Lee, A., & Mizerski, R. (2009). The effects of cultural values in word-of-mouth communication. Journal of International Marketing, 17(3), 55-70. doi. 10.1509/jimk.17.3.55

Lau, G., & Ng, S. (2001). Individual and situational factors influencing negative word-of-mouth behaviour. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 18(3), 163-178. doi. 10.1111/j.1936-4490.2001.tb00253.x

Lee, Y.-C., & Wu, W.-L. (2015). Effects of medical disputes on internet communications of negative emotions and negative online word-of-mouth. Psychological Reports: Relationships & Communications, 117(1), 251-270. doi. 10.2466/21.PR0.117c13z1

Lovett, M.J., Peres, R., & Shachar, R. (2013). On brands and word of mouth. Journal of Marketing Research, 50(4), 427-444. doi. 10.1509/jmr.11.0458

Maxham, J.G. (1999). Service recovery’s influence on consumer satisfaction, positive word-of-mouth, and purchase intentions. Journal of Business Research, 54(1), 11-24. doi. 10.1016/S0148-2963(00)00114-4

Okazaki, S. (2008). Determinant factors of mobile-based word-of-mouth campaign referral among Japanese adolescents. Psychology & Marketing, 25(8), 714-731. doi. 10.1002/mar.20235

Park, C., & Lee, T.M. (2009). Information direction, website reputation and eWOM effect: A moderating role of product type. Journal of Business Research, 62(1), 61–67. doi. 10.1016/j.jbusres.2007.11.017

Radighieri, J.P., & Mulder, M. (2012). The impact of source effects and message valence on word of mouth retransmission. International Journal of Market Research, 56(2), 249-263. doi. 10.2501/IJMR-2013-029

Rezvani, M., Hoseini, H., & Samadzadeh, M. (2012). Investigating the role of word of mouth on consumer based brand equity creation in Iran's cell-phone market. Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics and Information Technology, 2(1), 1-15.

Roman, S., & Cuestas, P.J. (2008). The perceptions of consumers regarding online retailers’ ethics and their relationship with consumers’ general internet expertise and word of mouth: A preliminary analysis. Journal of Business Ethics, 83(4), 641-656. doi. 10.1007/s10551-007-9645-4

Romaniuk, J. (2012, March). The various words of mouth moving beyond the “road-to-damascus” conversion. Journal of Advertising Research, 52(1), 12-14. doi. 10.2501/JAR-52-1-012-014

Shih, H.-P., Lai, K.-H., & Cheng, T. (2013). Informational and relational influences on electronic word of mouth: An empirical study of an online consumer discussion forum. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 17(4), 137-166.

Sotiriadis, M.D., & Zyl, C. (2013). Electronic word-of-mouth and online reviews in tourism services: the use of twitter by tourists. Electronic Commerce Research, 13(1), 103-124. doi. 10.1007/s10660-013-9108-1

Vijayasarathy, L. (2002). Product characteristics and internet shopping intentions. Internet Research, 12(5), 411-426. doi. 10.1108/10662240210447164

Walsh, G., & Mitchell, V. (2010). The effect of consumer confusion proneness on word of mouth, trust, and customer satisfaction. European Journal of Marketing, 44(6), 838-859. doi. 10.1108/03090561011032739

Westbrook, R.A. (1987). Product/consumption-based affective responses and postpurchase process. Journal of Marketing Research, 24(3), 258-270. doi. 10.2307/3151636



  • There are currently no refbacks.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Journal of Social and Administrative Sciences - J. Adm. Soc. Sci. - JSAS -

ISSN: 2149-0406. Editor :   Secretarial:   Istanbul - Turkey.

Copyright © KSP Journals