Cybernetic Model of Voting Behavior



Abstract. The purpose of this research paper is to review the theories on voting behavior. Apart from providing a brief review of the theories, the main contribution of this research paper lies in drawing a parallel between customer decision-making models of Marketing Management domain in the discipline of Business Administration and invoking the same as a separate theoretical viewpoint here with reference to the voters’ decision-making. Finally, the paper gives a model of voting behavior from a cybernetics model perspective wherein the role of social factors as well as personal factors is underlined as to how they influence the individual voter in response to the broader environmental factors like the national and international policy factors.

Keywords. Voting behavior, Political parties, Cybernetics.

JEL. D72, P20, C70.


Voting behavior; Political parties; Cybernetics.

Full Text:


Abramowitz, A. (1995). It's abortion, stupid: Policy voting in the 1992 presidential election. Journal of Politics, 57, 176-86. doi. 10.1111/j.1939-9162.2011.00014.x

Abrams, S., Iverson, T., & Soskice, D. (2010). Informal social networks and rational voting. British Journal of Political Science, 41, 229-257. doi. 10.1017/S0007123410000499

Alvarez, R.M., & Nagler, J. (1998). Economics, entitlements, and social issues: Voter choice in the 1996 presidential election. American Journal of Political Science, 42, 1349-1363. doi. 10.2307/2991862

Anderson, C.D., & Stephenson, L.B. (2010). Party identification in Canada: Origins, effects and consequences. accessed on 12th November, 2016. [Retrieved from].

Ansolabehere, S., & Iyengar, S. (1995). Going negative: How political advertisements shrink and polarize the electorate. New York: Free Press.

Antunes, R. (2008). Party identification and voting behavior: structural factors, attitudes and changes in voting. Doctoral thesis submitted to University of Coimbra.

Arrow, K. (1951). Social values and individual values. New York: John Willey & Sons.

Bimber, B. (2001). Information and political engagement in America: The search for effects of information technology at the individual level. Political Research Quarterly, 54(1), 53-67. doi. 10.2307/449207

Boulding, K.E. (1956). The image. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Bartolini, S., & Mair, P. (1990). Identity, competition and electoral availability. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Berelson, B.R., Lazarsfeld, P.F., & Mcphee, W.N. (1954). Voting: a study of opinion formation in a presidential campaign. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Blais, A. (2000). To vote or not to vote: the merits and limits of rational choice theory. Pittsburg: University of Pittsburg.

Boix Mansilla, V., Gardner, H., & Miller, W. (2000). On Disciplinary Lenses and Interdisciplinary Work. In S. Wineburg & P. Grossman (Eds.), Interdisciplinary Curriculum: Challenges to Implementation (pp. 17-38). New York: Teacher College Press.

Bray, J.P. (2008). Consumer Behaviour Theory: Approaches and Models. Discussion Paper. Bournemouth University. Bournemouth.

Brew, A. (2008). Disciplinary and interdisciplinary affiliations of experienced researchers. Higher Education, 56(4), 423-438. doi. 10.1007/s10734-007-9102-4

Brinberg, D., & Lutz, R. J. (1986). Perspectives on methodology in consumer research. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Brooks, C. (2006). Voters, satisficing, and policymaking: Recent directions in the study of electoral politics. Annual Review of Sociology, 32, 191-211. doi. 10.1146/annurev.soc.32.061604.123142

Campbell, A., Converse, P.E., Miller, W.E. & Stokes, D.E. (1960). The American voter. New York: Willey.

Cole, E.R., & Stewart, A.J. (1996). Meanings of political participation among black and white women: Political identity and social responsibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 130-140. doi. 10.1037/0022-3514.71.1.130

Costa, P.T., Jr., & McCrae, R.R. (1988). Personality in adulthood: A six-year longitudinal study of self-reports and spouse ratings on the NEO Personality Inventory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 853-863. doi. 10.1037/0022-3514.54.5.853

Costa, P.T., Jr., McCrae, R.R., & Dye, D.A. (1991). Facet scales for agreeableness and conscientiousness: A revision of the NEO Personality Inventory. Personality and Individual Differences, 12, 887-898. doi. 10.1016/0191-8869(91)90177-D

Curtice, J. (2002). The state of electoral studies: mid-life crisis or new youth? Electoral Studies, 21(2), 161-168. doi. 10.1016/S0261-3794(01)00015-4

Dalton, R.J. (1984). Cognitive mobilization and partisan dealignment in advanced industrial democracies. Journal of Politics, 46(1), 264-284. doi. 10.2307/2130444

Dalton, R.J. (2000). The decline of party identifications. In D. J. Russell & M. P. Wattenberg, Parties without partisans (pp. 19-36). New York: Oxford University Press.

Dalton, R.J., Flanagan, S.C., & Beck, P.A. (1984). Electoral change in advanced industrial democracies: realignment or dealignment? Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R.M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum.

Downs, A. (1957). An economic theory of democracy. New York: Harper & Row.

Egea-Kuehne, D. (2003). The teaching of philosophy: Renewed rights and responsibilities. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 35(3), 271-284. doi. 10.1111/1469-5812.00027

Engel, J.F., Kollat, D.T., & Blackwell, R.D. (1968). Consumer behavior. New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston.

Fackler, T., & Lin, T. (1995). Political corruption and Presidential election. Journal of Politics, 57(4), 971-993. doi. 10.2307/2960398

Fiorina, M.P. (1981). Retrospective voting in American national elections. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Fishbein, M. (1967). Readings in Attitude Theory and Measurement. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research. Philippines: Addison-Wesley.

Franklin, C.H. (1991). Eschewing obfuscation? Campaigns and the perception of U.S. Senate incumbents. American Political Science Review, 85(4), 1193-1214. doi. 10.2307/1963942

Franklin, M., Mackie, T.T. & Valen, H. (1992). Electoral change. Responses to evolving social and attitudinal structures in western countries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Glasgow, G., & Alvarez, R.M. (2005). Voting behavior and the electoral context of government formation. Electoral Studies, 24, 245-264. doi. 10.1016/j.electstud.2004.05.003

Green, D., B. Palmquist, & E. Schickler. 2002. Partisan hearts and minds. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Greenwalt, K. (1988). Religious convictions and political choice. New York: Oxford University Press.

Heylighen, F., & Joslyn, C. (2001). Cybernetics and second-order cybernetics. [Retrieved from].

Hillygus, D.S., & Jackman, S. (2003). Voter decision making in election 2000: Campaign effects, partisan activation, and the Clinton legacy. American Journal of Political Science, 47(4), 583-596. doi. 10.1111/1540-5907.00041

Hunt, S. D., & Pappas, J. L. (1972). A crucial test for the Howard Sheth model of buyer behavior. Journal of Marketing Research, 9, 346-348.

Howard, J.A., & Sheth, J.N. (1969). The theory of buyer behavior. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Johnson, M., Shively, W.P., & Stein, R.M. (2002). Contextual data and the study of elections and voting behavior: connecting individuals to environments. Electoral Studies, 21, 219-233. doi. 10.1016/S0261-3794(01)00019-1

Jost, J.T., Nosek, B.A., & Gosling, S.D. (2008). Ideology: Its resurgence in social, personality, and political psychology. Perspectives in Psychological Science, 3(2), 126-36. doi. 10.1111/j.1745-6916.2008.00070.x

Kagay, M.R. (1999). Presidential address: Public opinion and polling during Presidential scandal and impeachment. Public Opinion Quarterly, 63, 449-463. doi. 10.1086/297734

Karol, D., & Miguel, E. (2007). The electoral cost of war: Iraq casualties and the 2004 U.S. Presidential Election. Journal of Politics, 69(3), 633-648. doi. 10.1111/j.1468-2508.2007.00564.x

Keefer, P. (2007). Elections, special interests, and financial crisis. International Organization, 61(3), 607-641. doi. 10.1017/S0020818307070208

Kiewiet, D.R. (1983). Macroeconomics & micropolitics: The electoral effects of economic issues. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press.

Kotler, P. (1975). Overview of political candidate marketing. Advances in Consumer Research, 2, 761-769.

Lazarsfeld, P.F., Berelson, B., & Gaudet, H. (1968). The People's Choice. New York: Columbia University Press.

Lazarsfeld, P.F., Berelson, B. & Gaudet, H. (1944). The people’s choice: how the voter makes up his mind in a presidential campaign. New York: Columbia University Press.

Lipset, S., & Rokkan, S. (1967). Cleavagen structures, party systems, and voter alignments: an introduction. In S. Lipset & S. Rokkan, Party systems and voter alignments: cross national perspectives (pp. 1-64). New York: Free Press.

Lyon, A. (1992). Interdisciplinarity: Giving up Territory. College English, 54(6), 681-693.

Marchant, R., & Jones, M. (2003) Getting It Right: Involving disabled children in assessment, planning and review processes, Triangle, Hove.

Meernik, J. (1994). Presidential decision making and the political use of military force. International Studies Quarterly, 38(1), 121-138. doi. 10.2307/2600874

Moschis, G.P., & Moore, R.L. (1979). Decision making among the young: A socialization perspective. Journal of Consumer Research, 6(2), 101-112. doi. 10.1086/208754

Nicosia, F.M. (1966). Consumer decision processes: Marketing and advertising implications. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice-Hall.

Olshavsky, R.W., & Granbois, D.H. (1979). Consumer decision making- Fact or fiction? Journal of Consumer Research, 6(2), 93-100. doi. 10.1086/208753

Owen, D. (2011). The Internet and voter decision-making. Paper presented at the conference on “Internet, Voting, and Democracy”. Convened by Center for the Study of Democracy, University of California, Irvine and the European University Institute, Florence, Laguna Beach, CA, May 14-15, 2011.

Peters, J.P., & Welch, S. (1980). The effects of charges of corruption on voting behavior in Congressional elections. American Political Science Review, 74(3), 697-708. doi. 10.2307/1958151

Phillips, H., & Bradshaw, R. (1993). How customers actually shop: Customer interaction with the point of sale. Journal of the Market Research Society, 35(1), 51-62.

Putnam, R.D. (1988). Diplomacy and domestic politics: The logic of two-level games. International Organization, 42(3), 427-460. doi. 10.1017/S0020818300027697

Pomper, G.M. (1972). From confusion to clarity: Issues and American voters, 1956-1968. American Political Science Review, 66, 415-428. [Retrieved from].

Rotter, J.B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 80, Whole No. 609.

Schwarz, N. (2000). Emotion, cognition, and decision making. Cognition and Emotion, 14(4), 433-440. doi. 10.1080/026999300402745

Sears, D.O. (1983). The persistence of early political predispositions: The roles of attitude object and life stage. In Wheeler, L., & Shaver, P. (Eds.), Review of Personality and Social Psychology, (Vol. 4, pp. 79-116), Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Sproles, G.B., & Kendall, E.L. (1986). A methodology for profiling consumers' decision-making styles. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 20(2), 267-279. doi. 10.1111/j.1745-6606.1986.tb00382.x

Tolbert, C., & McNeal, R. (2001). Does the Internet increase voter participation in elections? The American Political Science Association, (Aug.), San Francisco, CA.

Van der Eijk, C. (2002). Design issues in electoral research: taking care of (core) business. Electoral Studies, 21, 189-206. doi. 10.1016/S0261-3794(01)00017-8

Van der Eijk, C., Franklin, M. & Oppenhuis, E. (1996). The strategic context: party choice. In C. Van der Eijk & M. Franklin, Choosing Europe? The European electoral and national politics in the face of union. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Wattenberg, M.P. (1994). The decline of American political parties, 1952-1992. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.

Weatherford, S. (1983). Economic Voting and the 'Symbolic Politics' Argument. American Political Science Review, 77, 156-74.

Welch, S., & Hibbing, J. (1992). Financial conditions, gender, and voting in American National Elections. Journal of Politics, 54(1), 197-213. doi. 10.2307/2131650

Wright, J.G. (1977). Contextual models of electoral behavior: the southern Wallace vote. American Political Science Review, 71, 497-508. doi. 10.1017/S0003055400267415

Wring, D. (1997). Reconciling marketing with political science: Theories of political marketing. Journal of Marketing Management, 13(7), 651-663. doi. 10.1080/0267257X.1997.9964502

Zaller, J.R. (1998). Monica Lewinsky’s Contribution to Political Science. Political Science, 31, 182-189. doi. 10.2307/420248



  • There are currently no refbacks.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Journal of Social and Administrative Sciences - J. Adm. Soc. Sci. - JSAS -

ISSN: 2149-0406. Editor :   Secretarial:   Istanbul - Turkey.

Copyright © KSP Journals