Searching for a development paradigm in Ghana: Can the ‘Beijing Consensus’ provide an Anchor?
Abstract. Since independence, Ghana has implemented many development paradigms, from big-push state-led industrialization to neoliberal market-oriented policies. However, the goal of industrialization has eluded the country. In recent years, new home-grown policy initiatives are beginning to replace neoliberal prescribed policies of Western donors and financial institutions. This study explores these new innovations focusing on the One District One factory initiative. We make the case that the policy is an innovative thinking on industrialisation and may reflect a realignment of Ghana’s development paradigm with the Beijing Consensus after many years of being taunted as a success story of IMF-World Bank neoliberal reform programmes.
Keywords. Neoliberalism, Development, Beijing consensus, Washington Consensus, industrialisation.JEL. O29, O25, O10, F59.
Abad, G. (2010). The Beijing Consensus in the Shadow of the Global Financial Crisis. UNISCI Discussion Papers, No.24, 45-60. [Retrieved from].
Action Aid Ghana. (2010). Implication of IMF loans and Conditions on the Poor and Vulnerable in Ghana. Accra: ActionAid.
Addo, E.O. (1999). Kwame Nkrumah: A case study of Religion and Politics in Ghana. New York and Oxford: University Press of America.
Adedeji, J.L. (2001). The Legacy of J.J. Rawlings in Ghanaian Politics, 1979-2000. African Studies Quarterly, 5(2), 1-27.
Adom, A.Y., & Zogbator, B.E. (2015). An Overview of Political and Economic Development in Ghana from 1957-2008. Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies, 6(5), 347-354.
Agyei-Mensah, S., & de-Graft Aikins, A. (2010). Epidemiological transition and the double burden of disease in Accra, Ghana. Journal of Urban Health, 87(5), 879–897. 10.1007/s11524-010-9492-y
Akornor, K. (2006). Africa and IMF Conditionality: The Unevenness of Compliance, 1983-2000. New York: Routledge.
Alagidede, P., Baah-Boateng, W., & Nketiah-Amponsah, E. (2013). The Ghanaian economy: an overview. Ghanaian Journal of Economics, 1(1), 4-34.
Arnold, G. (2005). Africa: A modern history. London: Atlantic Books.
Aryeetey, E., Harrigan, J., & Nissanke, M. (2000). Economic Reforms In Ghana: Miracle or Mirage? Oxford : First African World Press.
Austin, D. (1966). The Ghana coup d'Etat. Survival, 8(5), 166-172. doi. 10.1080/00396336608440639
Ayelazuno, J.A. (2014). Neoliberalism and Growth Without Development in Ghana: A case for State-led Industrialization. Journal of Asian and African Studies, 49(1), 80-99. doi. 10.1177/0021909613478787
Berry, L.V. (1994). Ghana: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress.
Biney, A. (2011). Social and Political Thought of Kwame Nkrumah. New York: Palgrave MacMillian.
Brydon, L., & Legge, K. (1996). Adjusting Society: The World Bank, the IMF and Ghana. London and New York: I.B Tauris Publishers.
Clark, L.J., & Söderling, L. (2000). Ghana: Long Term Growth, Atrophy, and Recovery. [Retrieved from]. December 20.
Coullier, P. (2007). The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries are Failing and What Can Be Done About It. New York: Oxford University Press.
Dirlik, A. (2006). Beijing Consensus: Beijing “Consensus”. Who recognizes Whom and to What End? Globalization and Autonomy Online Compendium. [Retrieved from]. March 5.
Easterly, W. (2001). The Effect of International Monetary Fund and World Bank Programs on Poverty. Policy Research Working Paper, No.2517. [Retrieved from].
Eichenauer, V.Z., Andreas, F., & Lutz, B. (2018). The Effects of Trade, Aid, and Investment on China's Image in Developing Countries. University of Heidelberg Discussion Paper Series, No.646. [Retrieved from].
Essek, J. (1975). Economic Policies. In D. Austin, & R. Luckham (Eds.), Politicians and Soldiers in Ghana, 1966 to 1972 (pp. 37-61). New York:: Routledge.
Essek, J. (2013). Economic Policies. In D. Austin, & R. Luckham, Politicians and Soldiers in Ghana, 1966 to 1972. New York: Routledge.
Esseks, J.D. (1971). Political Independence and Economic Decolonization : The Case of Ghana Under Nkrumah. Western Political Quarterly, 24(1), 59-64. doi. 10.1177/106591297102400110
Fosu, A., & Aryeetey, E. (2008). Economic growth in Ghana: 1960-2000. Accra: Woeli Publishing.
Fosu, A., & Aryeetey, E. (2008). Economic growth in Ghana: 1960-2000. Accra : Woeli Publishing.
Fuller, H. (2014). The Downfall of Kwame Nkrumah. In H. Fuller, Building the Ghanaian Nation-State. African Histories and Modernities (pp. 149-162). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Gyimah-Boadi, E. (2004). Civil Society and Democratic Development. In E. Gyima-Boadi (Ed.), Democratic Reform in Africa: The Quality of Progress (pp. 5-27). Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Haruna, I. (2017). The one-district-one-factory initiative: emphasis on cocoa growing areas. Policy Brief. [Retrieved from].
Hutchful, E. (1987). The IMF and Ghana: The confidential record. London: Zed Books Ltd.
ISSER. (2015). Electricity insecurity and its Impact on Micro and Small Businesses in Ghana: Electricity Insecurity and Its Impact on the Economy of Ghana. Accra: Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research.
Jeong, H.-W. (1995). Liberal Economic Reform in Ghana: A Contested Political Agenda. Africa Today, 42(4), 82-104.
Killick, T. (2010). Development economics in action: a study of economic policies in Ghana (2 ed.). Milton Park: Routledge.
Krassowki, A. (1974). Development and the Death Trap: Economic Planning and External Borrowing In Ghana. London: Overseas Development Institute .
Kraus, J. (1991). The Struggle over Structural Adjustment in Ghana. Africa Today, 38(4), 19-37.
Kualantzick, J. (2013). Why the 'China Model' Isn't Going Away: From Bangkok to Caracas, Beijing's style of authoritarian capitalism is gaining influence. The Atlantic. [Retrieved from].
Kumi, E.N. (2017). The Electricity Situation in Ghana: Challenges and Opportunities. CGD Policy Paper. [Retrieved from].
McLaughlin, J., & Owusu-Ansah. (1994). The fall of the Nkrumah and its aftermath Country Study: Ghana. USA: Library of Congress Federal Research Division. [Retrieved from].
Meng, J. (2004). Ghana: Miracle or Mirage . [Retrieved from]. March 15, 2015.
National Development Planning Commission. (2010). Ghana Share Growth and Development Agenda I. Accra: NDPC.
Nkrumah, K. (1963). Africa Must Unite. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, Inc.
Nkrumah, K. (1970). Consciencism: Philosophy and Ideology for de-Colonization. New York: Monthly Review Press.
One District One Factory Secretariat. (2018). One District One Factory. [Retrieved from].
Oquaye, M. (2004). Politics in Ghana, 1982-1992: Rawlings, revolution and populist democracy. Accra and New Delhi: Tornado Publications and Thomson Press India ltd.
Osei-Assibey, E. (n.d.). Export Promotion in Ghana. [Retrieved from]. June 2016.
Owusu, R.Y. (2006). Kwame Nkrumah’s Liberation Thought: A Paradigm for Religious Advocacy in Contemporary Ghana Africa. World Press, Inc.
Quartey, P. (2005). Innovative ways of making aid effective in Ghana: tied aid versus direct budget support. United Nations University. Research paper No. 2005/58. [Retrieved from].
Ramón, J.C. (2004). The Beijing Consensus. London: The Foreign Policy Centre.
Suisheng, Z. (2010). The China Model: Can it replace the Western Model of Modernization? Journal of Contemporary China, 19(65), 417-436. doi. 10.1080/10670561003666061
Sun, Y. (2016, December 20). China’s Aid to Africa: Monster or Messiah? [Retrieved from].
Turin, D.R. (2010). The Beijing Consensus: China’s Alternative Development. Inquiries Journal, 2(1), 1-2.
Ubi, E.N. (2014). Foreign Aid and Development in Sino-African Relations. Journal of Developing Societies, 30(3), 243-272. doi. 10.1177/0169796X14536971
UNCTAD. (2002). From Adjustment to Poverty Reduction: What is New? New York & Geneva: United Nations.
Whitfield, L. (2005). Trustees of Development from Conditionality to Governance: Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers in Ghana. The Journal of Modern African Studies, 43(4), 641-664. doi. 10.1017/S0022278X05001254
Williamson, J. (2012). Is the Beijing Consensus Now the Dominant? Asia Policy, 13, 1-20.
World Bank. (1989). Sub-Saharan Africa: From Crisis to Sustainable Development. Washington, DC: World Bank. [Retrieved from].Yang, Y. (2010). The End of the Beijing Consensus: Can China’s Model of Authoritarian Growth Survive? Foreign Affairs, 1-3. [Retrieved from]. March 21, 2015.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Journal of Economics and Political Economy - J. Econ. Pol. Econ. - JEPE - www.kspjournals.org
Copyright © KSP Library