The relation between terrorism and high population growth

Mario COCCIA

Abstract


Abstract. A fundamental problem in socioeconomic sciences is how to explain the root causes of terrorism. The literature has analyzed several determinants of terrorism. However, the precise role of demographic factors for the origin and evolution of terrorism in specific geoeconomic areas is hardly known. Results here show that high population growth seems to be basic for the source and evolution of terrorism. This study found that terrorism thrives, in average, in specific cultural zones with high growth rates of population combined with collective identity factors and low socioeconomic development. Overall, then, the main aim of this study is to clarify and generalize whenever possible, the demographic source of the terrorism and suggest appropriate socioeconomic policies to preempt this critical problem in society over the long run.

Keywords. Terrorism, Population growth, Fertility rate, Poverty, Middle East.

JEL. I30, I24, N35, Q56, Z12.

Keywords


Terrorism; Population growth; Fertility rate; Poverty; Middle East.

Full Text:


References


Abadie, A. (2005). Poverty, political freedom, and the roots of terrorism, The American Economic Review, 95(4), 50-56. doi. 10.1257/000282806777211847

Abernethy, V. (1993). Poverty, difference, and conflict. Population and Environment, 14(5), 417-419.

Acemoglu, D., Johnson, S., Robinson, J.A, & Yared, P. (2008). Income and democracy. The American Economic Review, 98(3), 808-842. doi. 10.1257/aer.98.3.808

Ackoff, R.L., & Rovin, S. 2003. Redesigning Society, Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA.

Agnew, R. (1985). A revised theory of delinquency, Social Forces, 64(1), 151-167. doi. 10.1093/sf/64.1.151

Alesina, A., Devleeschauwer, A., Easterly, W., Kurlat, S., & Wacziarg, R. (2003). Fractionalization. Journal of Economic Growth, 8(2), 155–194. doi. 10.1023/A:1024471506938

Altman, I. (1975). The Environment and Social Behavior. Brooks/Cole, Monterey, CA.

Ball, P. (2005). Is terrorism the next format for war? Nature, doi. 10.1038/news050711-5

Baum, A., Calesnick, L., Davis, G., & Gatchel, R. (1982). Individual differences in coping with crowding: Stimulus screening and social overload. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43(4), 821-830. doi. 10.1037/0022-3514.43.4.821

Baum, A., & Koman, S. (1976). Differential response to anticipated crowding: Psychological effects of social and spatial density. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34(3), 526–536. doi. 10.1037/0022-3514.34.3.526

Baum, A., & Paulus, P.B. (1991). Crowding. In D. Stokols, & I. Altman (Eds.), Handbook of Environmental Psychology, Vol. 1, (pp. 533–570). Wiley, NY.

Blomberg, S.B., Hess, G.D., & Weerapana, A. (2004). Economic conditions and terrorism. European Journal of Political Economy, 20(2), 463-478. doi. 10.1016/j.ejpoleco.2004.02.002

Blomberg, S.B., Hess, G.D., & Weerapana, A. (2004b). An economic model of terrorism. Conflict Management and Peace Science, 21(1), 17-28. doi. 10.1080/07388940490433882

Bowles, S. (2009). Did warfare among ancestral Hunter-Gatherers affect the evolution of human social behaviors?, Science, 324(5932), 1293-1298. doi. 10.1126/science.1168112

Burgoon, B. (2006). On welfare and terror: Social welfare policies and political-economic roots of terrorism. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 50(2), 176-203. doi. 10.1177/0022002705284829

Butler, D. (2015). Terrorism: why European turn to jihad, Nature, 528, 20-21.

Cahill, M.E., & Mulligan, G.F. (2003). The determinants of crime in Tucson, Arizona. Urban Geography, 24(7), 582–610. doi. 10.2747/0272-3638.24.7.582

Calabrese, G., Coccia, M., & Rolfo, S. (2005). Strategy and market management of new product development: evidence from Italian SMEs, International Journal of Product Development, 2(1-2), 170-189. doi. 10.1504/IJPD.2005.006675

Calhoun, J. (1962). Population density and social pathology. Scientific American, 206(2), 139-148.

Cariola, M., Coccia, M. (2004). Technology transfer virtual network: analysis within the national system of innovation, International Journal of Networking and Virtual Organisation, 2(2), 162-172. doi. 10.1504/IJNVO.2004.005137

Cassils, J.A. (2004). Overpopulation, sustainable development, and security: Developing an integrated strategy, Population and Environment, 25(3), 171–194. doi. 10.1023/B:POEN.0000032321.00906.70

Cavallo, E., Ferrari, E., Bollani, L., & Coccia, M. (2014). Attitudes and behaviour of adopters of technological innovations in agricultural tractors: A case study in Italian agricultural system, Agricultural Systems, 130, 44-54. doi. 10.1016/j.agsy.2014.05.012

Cavallo, E., Ferrari, E., Bollani, L., & Coccia, M. (2014a). Strategic management implications for the adoption of technological innovations in agricultural tractor: the role of scale factors and environmental attitude, Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 26(7), 765-779. doi. 10.1080/09537325.2014.890706

Cavallo, E., Ferrari, E., & Coccia, M. (2015). Likely technological trajectories in agricultural tractors by analysing innovative attitudes of farmers, International Journal of Technology, Policy and Management, 15(2), 158–177. doi. 10.1504/IJTPM.2015.069203

Choma, B.L., Haji, R., Hodson, G., & Hoffarth, M. (2016). Avoiding cultural contamination: Intergroup disgust sensitivity and religious identification as predictors of interfaith threat, faith-based policies, and islamophobia, Personality and Individual Differences, 95, 50-55. doi. 10.1016/j.paid.2016.02.013

Christens, B., Speer, P.W. (2005). Predicting violent crime using urban and suburban densities. Behavior and Social Issues, 14(2), 113-127. doi. 10.5210/bsi.v14i2.334

Christian, J. (1961). Phenomena associated with population density. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 47(4), 428-449. doi. 10.1177/030913257900300102

Coates, J.F. (1996). A thriving future for terrorism, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 51(3), 295-299. doi. 10.1016/0040-1625(95)00198-0

Coccia, M. (2001). Satisfaction, work involvement and R&D performance. International Journal of Human Resources Development and Management, 1(2-3-4), 268-282. doi. 10.1504/IJHRDM.2001.001010

Coccia, M. (2003). Metrics of R&D performance and management of public research institute. Proceedings of IEEE- IEMC 03, Piscataway, pp.231-236.

Coccia, M. (2004). Spatial metrics of the technological transfer: analysis and strategic management. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 16(1), 31-52. doi. 10.1080/0953732032000175490

Coccia, M. (2005). Countrymetrics: valutazione della performance economica e tecnologica dei paesi e posizionamento dell’Italia, Rivista Internazionale di Scienze Sociali, CXIII(3), 377-412.

Coccia, M. (2005a). Metrics to measure the technology transfer absorption: analysis of the relationship between institutes and adopters in northern Italy. International Journal of Technology Transfer and Commercialization, 4(4), 462-486. doi. 10.1504/IJTTC.2005.006699

Coccia, M. (2005b). Technometrics: Origins, historical evolution and new direction, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 72(8), 944-979. doi. 10.1016/j.techfore.2005.05.011

Coccia, M. (2005c). Economics of scientific research: origins, nature and structure, Proceedings of Economic Society of Australia.

Coccia, M. (2006). Classifications of innovations: survey and future directions. Working Paper Ceris del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, 8(2), 1-19. [Retrieved from].

Coccia, M. (2006a). Analysis and classification of public research institutes. World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, 3(1), 1-16.

Coccia, M. (2007). A new taxonomy of country performance and risk based on economic and technological indicators, Journal of Applied Economics, 10(1), 29-42.

Coccia, M. (2008). Science, funding and economic growth: analysis and science policy implications. World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, 5(1), 1-27. doi. 10.1504/WRSTSD.2008.01781

Coccia, M. (2008a). Spatial mobility of knowledge transfer and absorptive capacity: analysis and measurement of the impact within the geoeconomic space. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 33(1), 105-122. doi. 10.1007/s10961-007-9032-4

Coccia, M. (2008b). New organizational behaviour of public research institutions: Lessons learned from Italian case study. International Journal of Business Innovation and Research, 2(4), 402–419. doi. 10.1504/IJBIR.2008.018589

Coccia, M. (2009). A new approach for measuring and analyzing patterns of regional economic growth: empirical analysis in Italy. Italian Journal of Regional Science- Scienze Regionali, 8(2), 71-95. doi. 10.3280/SCRE2009-002004

Coccia, M. (2009a). Measuring the impact of sustainable technological innovation, International Journal of Technology Intelligence and Planning, 5(3), 276-288. doi. 10.1504/IJTIP.2009.026749

Coccia, M. (2010). Public and private R&D investments as complementary inputs for productivity growth. International Journal of Technology, Policy and Management, 10(1/2), 73-91. doi. 10.1504/IJTPM.2010.032855

Coccia, M. (2010a). Foresight of technological determinants and primary energy resources of future economic long waves, International Journal of Foresight and Innovation Policy, 6(4), 225–232. doi. 10.1504/IJFIP.2010.037468

Coccia, M. (2010b). Energy metrics for driving competitiveness of countries: Energy weakness magnitude, GDP per barrel and barrels per capita. Energy Policy, 38(3), 1330-1339. doi. 10.1016/j.enpol.2009.11.011

Coccia, M. (2010c). Spatial patterns of technology transfer and measurement of its friction in the geo-economic space. International Journal of Technology Transfer and Commercialisation, 9(3), 255-267. doi. 10.1504/IJTTC.2010.030214

Coccia, M. (2010d). The asymmetric path of economic long waves, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 77(5), 730-738. doi. 10.1016/j.techfore.2010.02.003

Coccia, M. (2010e). Democratization is the driving force for technological and economic change, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 77(2), 248-264. doi. 10.1016/j.techfore.2009.06.007

Coccia, M. (2011). The interaction between public and private R&D expenditure and national productivity. Prometheus-Critical Studies in Innovation, 29(2), 121-130. doi. 10.1080/08109028.2011.601079

Coccia, M. (2012). Political economy of R&D to support the modern competitiveness of nations and determinants of economic optimization and inertia, Technovation, 32(6), 370–379. doi. 10.1016/j.technovation.2012.03.005

Coccia, M. (2012a). Evolutionary trajectories of the nanotechnology research across worldwide economic players. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 24(10), 1029-1050. doi. 10.1080/09537325.2012.705117

Coccia, M. (2012b). Evolutionary growth of knowledge in path-breaking targeted therapies for lung cancer: radical innovations and structure of the new technological paradigm. International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research, 3(3-4), 273-290. doi. 10.1504/IJBHR.2012.051406

Coccia, M. (2012c). Converging genetics, genomics and nanotechnologies for groundbreaking pathways in biomedicine and nanomedicine. International Journal of Healthcare Technology and Management, 13(4), 184-197. doi. 10.1504/IJHTM.2012.050616

Coccia, M. (2012d). Driving forces of technological change in medicine: Radical innovations induced by side effects and their impact on society and healthcare. Technology in Society, 34(4), 271-283. doi. 10.1016/j.techsoc.2012.06.002

Coccia, M. (2013). What are the likely interactions among innovation, government debt, and employment? Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research, 26(4), 456–471. doi. 10.1080/13511610.2013.863704

Coccia, M. (2013a). The effect of country wealth on incidence of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 141(2), 225-229. doi. 10.1007/s10549-013-2683-y

Coccia, M. (2014). Path-breaking target therapies for lung cancer and a far-sighted health policy to support clinical and cost effectiveness. Health Policy and Technology, 1(3), 74-82. doi. 10.1016/j.hlpt.2013.09.007

Coccia, M. (2014a). Emerging technological trajectories of tissue engineering and the critical directions in cartilage regenerative medicine. Int. J. Healthcare Technology and Management, 14(3), 194-208. doi. 10.1504/IJHTM.2014.064247

Coccia, M. (2014b). Converging scientific fields and new technological paradigms as main drivers of the division of scientific labour in drug discovery process: the effects on strategic management of the R&D corporate change. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 26(7), 733-749, doi. 10.1080/09537325.2014.882501

Coccia, M. (2014c). Driving forces of technological change: The relation between population growth and technological innovation-Analysis of the optimal interaction across countries, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 82(2), 52-65. doi. 10.1016/j.techfore.2013.06.001

Coccia, M. (2014). Socio-cultural origins of the patterns of technological innovation: What is the likely interaction among religious culture, religious plurality and innovation? Towards a theory of socio-cultural drivers of the patterns of technological innovation, Technology in Society, 36(1), 13-25. doi. 10.23760/2421-7158.2017.004

Coccia, M. (2014e). Religious culture, democratisation and patterns of technological innovation. International Journal of Sustainable Society, 6(4), 397-418. doi. 10.1504/IJSSOC.2014.066771

Coccia, M. (2014f). Structure and organisational behaviour of public research institutions under unstable growth of human resources, Int. J. Services Technology and Management, 20(4/5/6), 251–266. doi. 10.1504/IJSTM.2014.068857

Coccia, M. (2014g). Steel market and global trends of leading geo-economic players. International Journal of Trade and Global Markets, 7(1), 36-52, doi. 10.1504/IJTGM.2014.058714

Coccia, M. (2015). The Nexus between technological performances of countries and incidence of cancers in society. Technology in Society, 42, 61-70. doi. 10.1016/j.techsoc.2015.02.003

Coccia, M. (2015a). Patterns of innovative outputs across climate zones: the geography of innovation, Prometheus. Critical Studies in Innovation, 33(2), 165-186. doi. 10.1080/08109028.2015.1095979

Coccia, M. (2015b). General sources of general purpose technologies in complex societies: Theory of global leadership-driven innovation, warfare and human development, Technology in Society, 42, 199-226. doi. 10.1016/j.techsoc.2015.05.008

Coccia, M. (2015c). Spatial relation between geo-climate zones and technological outputs to explain the evolution of technology. Int. J. Transitions and Innovation Systems, 4(1-2), 5-21. doi. 10.1504/IJTIS.2015.074642

Coccia, M. (2015d). Technological paradigms and trajectories as determinants of the R&D corporate change in drug discovery industry. International Journal Knowledge and Learning, 10(1), 29-43. doi. 10.1504/IJKL.2015.071052

Coccia, M. (2016). Asymmetric paths of public debts and of general government deficits across countries within and outside the European monetary unification and economic policy of debt dissolution. The Journal of Economic Asymmetries, 15, 17-31. doi. 10.1016/j.jeca.2016.10.003

Coccia, M. (2016a). Radical innovations as drivers of breakthroughs: characteristics and properties of the management of technology leading to superior organizational performance in the discovery process of R&D labs. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 28(4), 381-395. doi. 10.1080/09537325.2015.1095287

Coccia, M. (2016). Problem-driven innovations in drug discovery: co-evolution of radical innovation with the evolution of problems, Health Policy and Technology, 5(2), 143-155. doi. 10.1016/j.hlpt.2016.02.003

Coccia, M. (2016c). The relation between price setting in markets and asymmetries of systems of measurement of goods. The Journal of Economic Asymmetries, 14(B), 168-178. doi. 10.1016/j.jeca.2016.06.001

Coccia, M. (2017). The source and nature of general purpose technologies for supporting next K-waves: Global leadership and the case study of the U.S. Navy's Mobile User Objective System, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 116, 331-339. doi. 10.1016/j.techfore.2016.05.019

Coccia, M. (2017a). Optimization in R&D intensity and tax on corporate profits for supporting labor productivity of nations. The Journal of Technology Transfer, doi. 10.1007/s10961-017-9572-1

Coccia, M. (2017b). Varieties of capitalism’s theory of innovation and a conceptual integration with leadership-oriented executives: the relation between typologies of executive, technological and socioeconomic performances. Int. J. Public Sector Performance Management, 3(2), 148–168. doi. 10.1504/IJPSPM.2017.084672

Coccia, M. (2017c). Sources of disruptive technologies for industrial change. L’industria –rivista di Economia e Politicaindustriale, 38(1), 97-120.

Coccia, M. (2017d). Sources of technological innovation: Radical and incremental innovation problem-driven to support competitive advantage of firms. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 29(9), 1048-1061. doi. 10.1080/09537325.2016.1268682

Coccia, M. (2017e). A Theory of general causes of violent crime: Homicides, income inequality and deficiencies of the heat hypothesis and of the model of CLASH, Aggression and Violent Behavior, 37, 190-200. doi. 10.1016/j.avb.2017.10.005

Coccia, M. (2017f). New directions in measurement of economic growth, development and under development, Journal of Economics and Political Economy, 4(4), 382-395.

Coccia, M. (2017g). Disruptive firms and industrial change, Journal of Economic and Social Thought, 4(4), 437-450.

Coccia, M. (2017h). The Fishbone diagram to identify, systematize and analyze the sources of general purpose Technologies, Journal of Social and Administrative Sciences, 4(4), 291-303.

Coccia, M. (2018). A theory of the general causes of long waves: War, general purpose technologies, and economic change. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 128, 287-295 10.1016/j.techfore.2017.11.013

Coccia, M. (2018b). Evolution of the economics of science in the twenty century, Journal of Economics Library, 5(1), 65-84.

Coccia, M. (2018c). Violent crime driven by income Inequality between countries, Turkish Economic Review, 5(1), 33-55.

Coccia, M. (2018d). The origins of the economics of innovation, Journal of Economic and Social Thought, 5(1), 9-28.

Coccia, M. (2018e). Theorem of not independence of any technological innovation, Journal of Economics Bibliography, 5(1), 29-35.

Coccia, M. (2018e). Theorem of not independence of any technological innovation, Journal of Social and Administrative Sciences, 5(1), 15-33.

Coccia, M., & Bozeman, B. (2016). Allometric models to measure and analyze the evolution of international research collaboration. Scientometrics, 108(3), 1065-1084. doi. 10.1007/s11192-016-2027-x

Coccia, M., & Cadario, E. (2014). Organisational (un)learning of public research labs in turbulent context, International Journal of Innovation and Learning, 15(2), 115-129. doi. 10.1504/IJIL.2014.059756

Coccia, M., Falavigna, G., & Manello, A. 2015. The impact of hybrid public and market-oriented financing mechanisms on scientific portfolio and performances of public research labs: a scientometric analysis. Scientometrics, 102(1), 151-168. doi. 10.1007/s11192-014-1427-z

Coccia, M., & Finardi, U. (2012). Emerging nanotechnological research for future pathway of biomedicine. International Journal of Biomedical Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 2 (3-4), 299-317. doi. 10.1504/IJBNN.2012.051223

Coccia, M., & Finardi, U. (2013). New technological trajectories of non-thermal plasma technology in medicine. International Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, 11(4), 337-356. doi. 10.1504/IJBET.2013.055665

Coccia, M., Finardi, U., & Margon, D. (2012). Current trends in nanotechnology research across worldwide geo-economic players, The Journal of Technology Transfer, 37(5), 777-787. doi. 10.1007/s10961-011-9219-6

Coccia, M., & Rolfo, S. (2000). Ricerca pubblica e trasferimento tecnologico: il caso della regione Piemonte. In S. Rolfo (ed), Innovazione e piccole imprese in Piemonte, Franco Angeli Editore, Milano.

Coccia, M., & Rolfo, S. (2002). Technology transfer analysis in the Italian national research council, Technovation - The International Journal of Technological Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 22(5), 291-299. doi. 10.1016/S0166-4972(01)00018-9

Coccia, M., & Rolfo, S. (2007). How research policy changes can affect the organization and productivity of public research institutes, Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis, Research and Practice, 9(3) 215-233. doi. 10.1080/13876980701494624

Coccia, M., & Rolfo, S. (2010). New entrepreneurial behaviour of public research organizations: opportunities and threats of technological services supply, International Journal of Services Technology and Management, 13(1-2), 134-151. doi. 10.1504/IJSTM.2010.029674

Coccia, M., & Rolfo, S. (2013). Human resource management and organizational behavior of public research institutions, International Journal of Public Administration, 36(4), 256-268. doi. 10.1080/01900692.2012.756889

Coccia, M., & Rolfo, S. (2009). Project management in public research organization: Strategic change in complex scenarios. International Journal of Project Organisation and Management, 1(3), 235–252. doi. 10.1504/IJPOM.2009.027537

Coccia, M., & Wang, L. (2015). Path-breaking directions of nanotechnology-based chemotherapy and molecular cancer therapy, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 94, 155–169. doi. 10.1016/j.techfore.2014.09.007

Coccia, M., & Wang, L. (2016). Evolution and convergence of the patterns of international scientific collaboration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 113(8), 2057-2061. doi. 10.1073/pnas.1510820113

Coggins, B.L. (2015). Does State Failure Cause Terrorism? An Empirical Analysis (1999–2008). Journal of Conflict Resolution, 59(3), 455-483. doi. 10.1177/0022002713515403

Cozens, P.M. (2008). New urbanism, crime and the suburbs: A review of the evidence. Urban Policy and Research, 26(4), 1–16. doi. 10.1080/08111140802084759

Crenshaw, M. (1981). The Causes of Terrorism. Comparative Politics, 13(4), 379-399.

Curtis, L.A. (1975). Violence, Race, and Culture. Health, Lexington, MA.

Desor, J.A. (1972). Toward a psychological theory of crowding. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 21(1), 79–83. doi. 10.1037/h0032112

Desouza, K.C., Koh, W.T.H., & Ouksel, A.M. (2007). Information technology, innovation and the war on terrorism. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 74(2), 125-128. doi. 10.1016/j.techfore.2006.07.006

Devezas, T., & Santos, U. (2006). The Emergence of Modern terrorism. In T.C. Devezas (ed.), Kondratieff Waves, Warfare and World Security, (pp.245-249), IOS Press, Amsterdam.

Editorials Nature, (2015). Root causes-Research has a part to play in identifying the factors that breed terrorism, Nature, 528(7580), 7-8. doi. 10.1038/528007b

Ehrlich, P.R., & Liu, J. (2002). Some roots of terrorism. Population and Environment, 24(2), 183-192. doi. 10.1023/A:1020700221602

Ehrlich, P.R. (1968). The Population Bomb. New York, NY: Ballantine Books.

Enders, W., & Hoover, G.A. (2012). The nonlinear relationship between terrorism and poverty. American Economic Review: Papers and Proceedings, 102(3), 267-272. doi. 10.1257/aer.102.3.267

Enders, W., Hoover, G.A., & Sandler T. (2016). The changing nonlinear relationship between income and terrorism, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 60(2), 195-225. doi. 10.1177/0022002714535252

Ezcurra, R., & Palacios, D. (2016). Terrorism and spatial disparities: Does interregional inequality matter? European Journal of Political Economy, 42, 60-74. doi. 10.1016/j.ejpoleco.2016.01.004

Fargues, P. (2000). Protracted national conflict and fertility change: Palestinians and Israelis in the twentieth century. Population and Development Review, 26(3), 441–482. doi. 10.1111/j.1728-4457.2000.00441.x

Frey, B.S., & Luechinger, S. (2003). How to fight terrorism: Alternatives to deterrence. Defence and Peace Economics, 14(4), 237-249. doi. 10.1080/1024269032000052923

Glenn, J.C. & Gordon, T.J. (2006). State of the Future. American Council for the United Nations University, Washington, DC.

Haushofer, J., Biletzki, A., & Kanwisher, N. (2010). Both sides retaliate in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 107(42), 17927-17932. doi. 10.1073/pnas.1012115107

Kaplan, R.D. (2000). The Coming Anarchy: Shattering the Dreams of the Post Cold War. New York, NY: Random House.

Keyfitz, N. (1993). Population and sustainable development: Distinguishing fact and preference concerning the future human population and environment, Population and Environment, 14(5), 441-461. doi. 10.1146/annurev.energy.32.041306.100243

Krieger, T., & Meierrieks, D. (2010). Terrorism in the Worlds of welfare capitalism. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 54(6), 902-939. doi. 10.1177/0022002710367885

Krieger, T., & Meierrieks, D. (2011). What causes terrorism?, Public Choice, 147(1-2), 3-27.

Krueger, A.B., & Malečková, J. (2009). Attitudes and action: Public opinion and the occurrence of international terrorism. Science, 325(5947), 1534-1536. doi. 10.1126/science.1170867

LaFree, G., & Dugan, L. (2004). How does studying terrorism compare to studying crime? In M. Deflem (Ed.), Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism: Criminological Perspectives, (pp.53−74). New York: Elsevier.

LaFree, G., & Dugan, L. (2009). Research on terrorism and countering terrorism. In M. Tonry (ed.), Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, (pp.413-177). University of Chicago Press: Chicago.

Laird, J.T. (1973). Mental health and population density. Journal of Psychology, 85(2), 171–177. doi. 10.1080/00223980.1973.9915647

Lee, B.X. (2016). Causes and cures VII: Structural violence. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 28(3), 109–114. doi. 10.1016/j.avb.2016.05.003

Lee, B.X. (2016). Causes and cures VIII: Environmental violence. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 30, 105-109. doi. 10.1016/j.avb.2016.07.004

Lemsine, A. (1992). God guard Islam from the Islamists, The Washington Report on Middle Eastern Affairs, pp. 14-16.

Lepore, S.J., Evans, G.W., & Palsane, M.N. (1991). Social hassles and psychological health in the context of chronic crowding. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 32(4), 357-367. doi. 10.2307/2137103

Li, Q., & Schaub, D. (2004). Economic globalization and transnational terrorism: A pooled time-series analysis. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 48(2), 230-258. doi. 10.1177/0022002703262869

Linstone, H.A. (2007). Book Review: Warfare and World Security, Kondratieff Waves, T. C. Devezas (Ed.), 2006, IOS Press, Amsterdam. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 74(1), 113-116.

Linstone, H.A. (2007). Warfare and World Security, Kondratieff Waves, T. C. Devezas (Ed.), 2006, IOS Press, Amsterdam. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 74(1), 113-116. doi. 10.1016/j.techfore.2006.08.009

Linstone, H.A. (2003). The 21st century: Everyman as faust - technology, terrorism, and the multiple perspective approach. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 70(3), 283-296. doi. 10.1016/S0040-1625(02)00395-5

Mackintosh, E., West S., & Saegert, S. (1975). Two studies of crowding in urban public spaces. Environment and Behavior, 7, 159-184. doi. 10.1177/001391657500700203

Malthus, T.R. (1817). An Essay on the Principle of Population; or, A View of its Past and Present Effects on Human Happiness; with an Inquiry into Our Prospects Respecting the Future Removal or Mitigation of the Evils which it Occasions. London, U.K.: J. Murray.

Meadows, D., Randers, J., & Meadows, D. (2004). Limits to Growth- The 30 Year Update, Chelsea Green Publishing Company, VT.

Muller, E.N., & Seligson, M.A. (1987). Inequality and insurgency, American Political Science Review, 81(2), 425-451. doi. 10.2307/1961960

Muller, E.N., & Weede E. (1990). Cross-national variation in political violence. A rational action approach, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 34(4), 624-651. doi. 10.1177/0022002790034004003

National Institute of Justice, (1996). Physical Environment and Crime. National Institute of Justice. Rockville, MD. USA.

Newman, E. (2006). Exploring the root causes of terrorism. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 29(8), 749-772. doi. 10.1080/10576100600704069

Norris, P. (2015). Democracy cross-national data, Release 4.0 Fall 2015 (New), John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge MA. Accessed May 2016, [Retrieved from].

Norris, P., Kern, M., & Just, M. (2013). Framing Terrorism: The News Media, the Government and the Public, Routledge.

Park, J., & Bali, V. (2015). International terrorism and the political survival of leaders. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 61(7), 1343-1370. doi. 10.1177/0022002715613139

Parsons, J. (1991). Population control and politics, Population and Environment, 12(4), 355-377. doi. 10.1007/BF01566305

Peluso, N.L., & Watts, M. (2001). Violent Environments. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Piazza, J.A. (2006). Rooted in poverty? Terrorism, poor economic development, and social cleavages. Terrorism and Political Violence, 18(1), 159-177. doi. 10.1080/095465590944578

Rapoport, D.C. (2004). Modern terror: The four waves. In A.K. Cronin & J.M. Ludes (eds.), Attacking Terrorism: Elements of a Grand Strategy, (pp.46-73). Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

Reardon, S. (2015). Looking for the roots of terrorism. Nature, doi. 10.1038/nature.2015.16732

Regoeczi, W.C. (2003). When context matters: A multilevel analysis of household and neighborhood crowding on aggression and withdrawal. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 23(4), 451-464. doi. 10.1016/S0272-4944(02)00106-8

Rice, S.K. (2009). Emotions and terrorism research: A case for a social-psychological agenda. Journal of Criminal Justice, 37(3), 248-255. doi. 10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2009.04.012

Rocha, A.B.S. (2013). Evolutionary dynamics of nationalism and migration, Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, 392(15), 3183-3197. doi. 10.1016/j.physa.2013.03.030

Rolfo, S., & Coccia, M. (2005). L’interazione traricercapubblica e industria in Italia, l’Industria Rivista di Economia e Politica Industriale, 26(4), 657-674.

Rosendorff, B.P., & Sandler, T. (2005). The political economy of transnational terrorism. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 49(2), 171-182. doi. 10.1177/0022002704272834

Schaafsma, J., & Williams, K.D. (2012). Exclusion, intergroup hostility, and religious fundamentalism. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(4), 829-837. doi. 10.1016/j.jesp.2012.02.015

Schulz-Gambard, J., Feierabend, C., & Hommel, B. (1988). The experience of crowding in real life environments. In D. Canter (Ed.), Environmental Social Psychology (pp.94-105). Kluwer, Dordrecht, Netherlands.

Schuurman, B., & Horgan, J.G. (2016). Rationales for terrorist violence in homegrown jihadist groups: A case study from the Netherlands. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 27, 55-63. doi. 10.1016/j.avb.2016.02.005

START, (2015). National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START) 2015. Global Terrorism Database, Data file. Accessed: April 2016. [Retrieved from].

Thiessen, D.D., & Rodgers, D.A. (1961). Population density and endocrine function. Psychological Bulletin, 58(6), 441-451. doi. 10.1037/h0042778

Thomas, M.A. (2010). What do the worldwide governance indicators measure? European Journal of Development Research, 22(1), 31-54. doi. 10.1057/ejdr.2009.32

UNDP, (2016). United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Reports. Accessed: March 2016. [Retrieved from].

United Nations, (2016). United Nations Action to Counter Terrorism, Accessed: 4th October, 2016. [Retrieved from].

Valins, S., & Baum, A. (1973). Residential group sizes, social interaction, and crowding. Environment and Behavior, 5(4), 421-439. doi. 10.1177/001391657300500404

van Bergen, D.D., Feddes, A.F., Doosje, B., & Pels T.V.M. (2015). Collective identity factors and the attitude toward violence in defense of ethnicity or religion among Muslim youth of Turkish and Moroccan Descent. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 47, 89-100. doi. 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2015.03.026

Verbrugge, L.M., & Taylor, R.B. (1980). Consequences of population density and size. Urban Affairs Quarterly, 16(2), 135-160. doi. 10.1177/107808748001600202

Visaria, P. (1989). Population theory and sustainable development, Population Bulletin of the United Nations, 27, 1-29.

White, M.J. (2016). International Handbook of Migration and Population Distribution, Springer.

World Bank, (2008). World development indicators. Accessed: February, 2016. [Retrieved from].




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1453/jepe.v5i1.1575

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Journal of Economics and Political Economy - J. Econ. Pol. Econ. - JEPE - www.kspjournals.org

ISSN: 2148-8347. Editor : editor-jepe@kspjournals.org   Secretarial: secretarial@kspjournals.org   Istanbul - Turkey.

Copyright © KSP Journals