Migration-driven women’s empowerment: The case of Turkey



Abstract. This paper addresses the effect of migration on women’s empowerment in Turkey.  Utilization of data over six decades from 1960 until 2011 gives the possibility that these series can be spuriously correlated. This study, therefore, adopts the bounds testing procedure as a method to determine and to avoid spurious correlation. The results of bounds testing gives clear-cut evidence that women’s empowerment, the share of women in parliament in the present context, is related to the emigration rate, the relative education of women and to a measure of democracy. It is also found that the share of women in parliament is related to the country groups with the largest effect in European and core OECD countries. The results are robust for the inclusion of asylum seekers and refugees in the emigration data.

Keywords. International migration.

JEL. F22.


International migration.

Full Text:


Ahmad, I. (2005). Between moderation and radicalisation: Transnational interactions of Jamaate-Islami of India. Global Networks, 5(3), 279-299. doi. 10.1111/j.1471-0374.2005.00119.x

Batista, C. & Vicente, P.C. (2011). Do migrants improve governance at home? Evidence from a voting experiment. World Bank Economic Review, 25(1), 77-104. doi. 10.1093/wber/lhr009

Banerjee, A., Dolado, J.J. Galbraith J.W. & Hendry, D.F. (1993). Cointegration, Error Correction, and the Econometric Analysis of Non-stationary Data. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

Banerjee, A., Dolado, J.J. & Mestre, R. (1998). Error-correction mechanism tests for cointegration in single-equation framework. Journal of Time Series Analysis, 19(3), 267-283. doi. 10.1111/1467-9892.00091

Beine, M., Docquier, F. & Schiff, M. (2013). International migration, transfer of norms and home-country fertility. Canadian Journal of Economics, 46(4), 1406-1430. doi. 10.1111/caje.12062

Beine, M. & Sekkat, K. (2012). Skilled migration and the transfer of institutional norms. ERF Working Paper Series, No.681. [Retrieved from].

Beine, M., Docquier, F. & Rapoport, H. (2001). Brain drain and economic growth: Theory and evidence. Journal of Development Economics, 64(1), 275-89. doi. 10.1016/S0304-3878(00)00133-4

Belanger, D. & Rahman, M. (2013). Migrating against all the odds: International labour migration of Bangladeshi women. Current Sociology, 61(3), 356-373. doi. 10.1177/0011392113484453

Bertoli, S. & Marchetta, F. (2013). Bringing it all back home. Return migration and fertility choices. Manuscript. CERDI. [Retrieved from]. Published in 2015 New reference is (it also has to change in the text): Bertoli, S. & Marchetta, F. (2015). Bringing it all back home. Return migration and fertility choices. World Development, 65(C), 27-40. doi. 10.1016/j.worlddev.2013.08.006

Campos, J. & Ericsson, N.R. (1999). Constructive data mining: modelling consumers’ expenditure in Venezuela. The Econometrics Journal, 2(2), 226-240. doi. 10.1111/1368-423X.00029

Cansun, S. (2013). Perceptions of women’s political participation in Turkey: The examples of the JDP and the RPP. Paper presented at the 3rd European Conference on Politics and Gender; 21-23 March 2013, Barcelona, Spain.

Caha, O. (2010). Women and local democracy in Turkey. Journal of Economic and Social Research, 12(1), 161-189.

Caporal, B. (1982). Kemalizm and Kemalizm Sonrasinda Turk Kadini. Turkiye Is Bankasi Kultur Yayinlari. Ankara.

Clots-Figueras, I. (2011). Women in politics. Evidence from the Indian States. Journal of Public Economics, 95(7-8), 664-690. doi. 10.1016/j.jpubeco.2010.11.017

Docquier, F., Lodigiani, E., Rapoport, H. & Schiff, M. (2011). Emigration and democracy. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, No.5557. [Retrieved from].

Doornik, J.A. & Hendry, D.F. (2001). Modelling Dynamic Systems Using PcGive. London: Timberlake Consultants Press.

Ergil, D. (1975). Turk Toplumunda Kadin. ODTU, Ankara.

Fargues, P. (2011). International migration and the demographic transition: A two-way interaction. International Migration Review, 45(3), 588-614. doi. 10.1111/j.1747-7379.2011.00859.x

Fargues, P. (2007). The demographic benefit of international nigration: A hypothesis and its application to Middle Eastern and North African countries. In: C. Özden & M. Schiff (Eds) International Migration, Economic Development and Policy. (pp.161-182), Washington DC: World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan.

Frank, R. (2005). International migration and infant health in Mexico. Journal of Immigrant Health, 7(1). 11-22. doi. 10.1007/s10903-005-1386-9

Icduygu, A. (2009). International migration and human development in Turkey. United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Research Paper, No.2009/52. [Retrieved from].

Jiménez, L.F. (2008). De Paisano a Paisano: Mexican Migrants and the Transference of Political Attitudes to their Country of Origin. PhD Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh. [Retrieved from].

Johansen, S. (1995). Likelihood-Based Inference in Cointegrated Vector Autoregressive Models. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

Katz, E. & Rapoport, H. (2005). On human capital formation with exit options. Journal of Population Economics, 18(2), 267-74. doi. 10.1007/s00148-004-0214-1

Kapur, D. (2008). The political impact of international migration on sending countries. Paper presented at the SSRC Conference on Migration and Development: Future Directions for Research and Policy; February 28-March 1, New York, USA.

Kasapoglu, A. & Ozerkmen, N. (2011). Gender imbalances: The case of women’s political participation in Turkey. Journal of International Women’s Studies, 12(4), 97-107.

Keskin, B. (1997). Political participation patterns of Turkish women. Middle East Review of International Affairs, 1.

Koray, M. (1995). Turkiye’de Kadin. Turkiye Sosyal Ekonomik Arastirmalar Vakfi.

Levitt, P. (1998). Social remittances: Migration driven local-level forms of cultural diffusion. International Migration Review, 32(4), 926-948. doi. 10.2307/2547666

Levitt, P. (2001). The Transnational Villagers. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Levitt, P. & Lamba-Nieves, D. (2011). Social remittances revisited. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 37(1), 1-22. doi. 10.1080/1369183X.2011.521361

Lindstrom, D.P., & Muñoz-Franco, E. (2005). Migration and the diffusion of modern contraceptive knowledge and use in rural Guatemala. Studies in Family Planning, 36(4), 277–288. doi. 10.1111/j.1728-4465.2005.00070.x

Lodigiani, E. & Salomone, S. (2012). Migration-induced transfers of norms. The case of female political empowerment, IRES Discussion Paper, No.2012-1. [Retrieved from].

Mariani, F. (2007). Migration as an antidote to rent-seeking. Journal of Development Economics, 84(2), 609-30. doi. 10.1016/j.jdeveco.2007.02.001

Mountford, A. (1997). Can a brain drain be good for growth in the source economy?. Journal of Development Economics, 53(2), 287-303. doi. 10.1016/S0304-3878(97)00021-7

Narayan, P.K. (2005). The saving and investment nexus for China: Evidence from cointegration tests. Applied Economics, 37(17), 1979–1990. doi. 10.1080/00036840500278103

Omar Mahmoud, T., Rapoport, H., Steinmayr, A. & Trebesch, C. (2013). Do migrants remit political change? Evidence from Moldova. Work in Progress. The Kiel Institute for the World Economy. [Retrieved from].

Osella, C. & Osella, F. (2007). I am Gulf': The production of cosmopolitanism in Kozhikode, Kerala, India. In: E. Simpson & K. Kresse (eds) Struggling with History: Islam and Cosmopolitanism in the Western Indian Ocean. London: Hurst.

Pesaran, M.H., Shin, Y. & Smith, R.J. (2001). Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships. Journal of Applied Econometrics, 16(3), 289–326. doi. 10.1002/jae.616

Rajagopal, A. (1997). Transnational networks and Hindu nationalism. Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars, 29(3), 45-58.

Spilimbergo, A. (2009). Foreign students and democracy. American Economic Review, 99(1), 528-43. doi. 10.1257/aer.99.1.528

Stark, O. (2003). The economics of the brain drain turned on its head. Revue d'Économie du Développement, 2, 137-150. doi. 10.3917/edd.172.0137

Thomas, S. (1991). The impact of women on state legislative policies. The Journal of Politics, 53(4), 958-976. doi. 10.2307/2131862

World Bank, (2011). Gender Equality and World Development. World Development Report 2012, Washington DC. [Retrieved from].

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1453/jepe.v4i4.1528


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Journal of Economics and Political Economy - J. Econ. Pol. Econ. - JEPE - www.kspjournals.org

ISSN: 2148-8347. Editor : editor-jepe@kspjournals.org   Secretarial: secretarial@kspjournals.org   Istanbul - Turkey.

Copyright © KSP Journals