Structural capital of Malawi: Year 2005-2014

Tzu-Yorn KAO, Kuan-Chun HUANG

Abstract


Abstract. Not being put as a central agenda when dealing with various forms of significant capitals of a nation, structures (and processes) that carry people, actions, resources, and systems to run are very important. This paper reports the face and development of structural capital of Malawi as a rapidly developing country in Africa. The results showed that, CPIA business regulatory environment (i.e., Business competition environment), Business extent of disclosure (as it reflects Government efficiency), CPIA property rights & rule-based governance rating (Intellectual property right protection), Computers in use per capita, and Ease of doing business(i.e., Convenience of establishing new firms) remained at similar level and with less rapid growth. Positively, the number of firms using banks to finance investment (i.e., capital availability) and the Mobile phone subscribers are two factors that feature this economy’s structural/process capital strength. Theoretical and policy implications follow.

Keywords. Intellectual capital, National wealth, National capital, Intangible assets, Economic growth.

JEL. M10, M11, M14.

Keywords


Intellectual capital; National wealth; National capital; Intangible assets; Economic growth.

Full Text:


References


Bontis, N. (2004). National intellectual capital index: The benchmarking of Arab countries. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 5(1), 13–39. doi. 10.1016/B978-0-7506-7773-8.50011-X

Carr, N.G. (2003). IT doesn’t matter, Harvard Business Review, pp.41–49. [Retrieved from].

Collins, J. (2001). Level 5 leadership: The triumph of humility and fierce resolve, Harvard Business Review, 79(1), 67–76. [Retrieved from].

Edvinsson, L., & Malone, M.S. (1997). Intellectual Capital: Realizing Your Company’s True Value by Defining its Hidden Brainpower. New York: Harper Business.

Garcia-Ayuso, M. (2003). Intangibles: Lessons from the past and a look into the future. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 4(4), 597–604. doi. 10.1108/14691930310504590

Jarehov, M., & Stenfelt, C. (1998). IC on National level, Stockholm University, Market Academy, Master Thesis.

Klein, P.A. (2000). National statistics, portrait of the value floor. Journal of Economy Issues, 34(2), 445–452. doi. 10.1080/00213624.2000.11506283

Lin, C., & Edvinsson, L. (2011). National Intellectual Capital A Comparison of 40 Countries, Springer.

Malhotra, Y. (2000). Knowledge assets in the global economy: Assessment of national intellectual capital. Journal of Global Information Management, 8(3), 5–15. doi. 10.4018/jgim.2000070101

Malhotra, Y. (2003). Managing and measuring knowledge assets in the public sector. Working Paper, Syracuse University. [Retrieved from].

Nolan, A. (2011). New Sources of Growth: Intangible assets, Updated September. [Retrieved from].

OECD. (2001). The well-being of Nations: The Role of Human and Social Capital. Center for educational research and innovation research paper. Paris: OECD. [Retrieved from].

Pasher, E. (1999). The Intellectual Capital of the State of Israel, Herzlia Pituach: Kal Press.

Pasher, E., & Shachar, S. (2007). The intellectual capital of the state of Israel: 60 years of achievement. [Retrieved from].

Pomeda, J.R., Moreno, C.M., Rivera, C.M., & Martil, L.V. (2002). Towards an intellectual capital report of Madrid: New insights and developments, presented at “The transparent enterprise. The value of intangibles”, Madrid, Spain, 25–26 November.

Saruaorg. (2016). Saruaorg. Retrieved 27 May. [Retrieved from].

Spring Project, (2002). [Retrieved from].

Steward, T.A. (1997). Intellectual capital: The new wealth of organizations. New York: Nicholas Brealey.

Unescoorg. (2016). Unescoorg. Retrieved 27 May. [Retrieved from].

United National Development Programme (UNDP). (2000). Survey of economic and social development in the ESCWA region 1999–2000. United National Development Programme Research Paper. New York, NY. [Retrieved from].

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, (2003). Status of and Trends in the Development of E-Government, New York, NY. [Retrieved from].

Weziak, D. (2007). Measurement of national intellectual capital application to EU countries. [Retrieved from].

World Bank, (1998). World Development Report: Knowledge for Development, Oxford University Press.

World Bank, (2001). World Development Indicators. Washington, DC: World Bank.

World Bank, (2002). ‘The knowledge assessment’, Methodology and Scoreboards, [Retrieved from].

World Bank, (2013). Malawi - Public expenditure review. Public Expenditure Review (PER). Washington DC: World Bank Group. [Retrieved from].

Worldbankorg. (2016). Worldbankorg. Retrieved 26 May. [Retrieved from].

Worldbankorg. (2016). Worldbankorg. Retrieved 27 May. [Retrieved from].

Yan. S. (2015). China is spending billions in Africa’, CNN Money, First published December 3. [Retrieved from].




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1453/jel.v4i3.1404

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Journal of Economics Library - J. Econ. Lib. - JEL - www.kspjournals.org

ISSN: 2149-2379. Editor : editor-jel@kspjournals.org   Secretarial: secretarial@kspjournals.org   Istanbul - Turkey.

Copyright © KSP Journals