Religious, Ethnic, Linguistic and Cultural Diversity and Female Labor Force Participation

Cuneyt KOYUNCU, Eda ÖZEN

Abstract


Abstract. There are numerous macro and micro level determinants of female labor force participation (FLFP) counted in the literature. Besides the other explanatory factors of FLFP, diversification in religion, ethnicity, language and culture in a society may also play an important role in the explanation of FLFP. Therefore this study empirically examines the impact of religion, ethnic, linguistic, and cultural diversity on FLFP by using a cross-section data of 109 countries. We hypothesize that societies with higher level of religion, ethnic, linguistic, and cultural diversity experience higher level of FLFP via interaction across distinct religions, ethnicities, languages, and cultures. Our empirical results endorse our hypothesis for religion, ethnicity, and language except culture. This finding reveals that diversification in religion, ethnicity, and language in a country significantly and positively affects the FLFP level in that country.

Keywords. Religion, Ethnicity, Language, Culture, Female labor force participation, Multivariate analysis.

JEL. C13, C21, J21, Z1, Z12, Z13.

Keywords


Religion; Ethnicity; Language; Culture; Female labor force participation; Multivariate analysis.

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1453/jeb.v4i1.1249

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